Natural Resources Management

This category contains 279 resources

Evergreen Agriculture: The use of fertilizer trees in maize production in Malawi.

Agroforestry is a set of tools which farmers can use to increase yields, build soil fertility, raise their income, and boost their food security. ICRAF and its partners have worked closely with farmers for decades to promote and develop simultaneous intercropping practices to address the challenges in soil fertility facing smallholder farmers. As supplementary technology in evergreen agriculture, agroforestry technology will focus on the concept of simultaneous intercropping of proven fertilizer trees in replenishing soil fertility and increasing crop yields. Simultaneous intercropping is an agroforestry technique whereby nitrogen-fixing woody trees are simultaneously grown with annual crops on the same piece of land at the same time. This is done in order to improve soil fertility and increase yields. While the trees are on the land throughout the year, the crops planted at the beginning of the rainy season dominate during the growing season.

Evergreen Agriculture: Conservation Agriculture in maize production in Malawi.

Evergreen Agriculture is a combination of conservation agriculture and agroforestry practices within the same spatial and temporal dimensions. In other circles, evergreen agriculture is referred to as agroforestry based conservation agriculture or Conservation Agriculture With Trees (CAWT). Evergreen agriculture is being tested by ICRAF in conjunction with partners in Malawi and across Africa as the means for enhancing soil fertility, increasing crop productivity and increasing food production. This section will focus on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture (CA) as applied in maize production in Malawi. Conservation agriculture also improves the soil health and productivity as well as improves the crop production. ICRAF envisages that a combination of these two technologies together with other technologies will improve soil health and improve crop production and finally improves food security in Malawi.

Grafting Techniques of Allanblackia spp

This technology describes various stages of propagating Allanblackia species by grafting. Grafting is a technique widely used in horticulture and forestry for the mass production of selected plants, and is one of the most successful methods for propagating Allanblackia vegetative. The technique involves formation of a union between scions taken from desirable mother trees and rootstocks that are normally young or healthy seedlings established in the nursery. By grafting, the period between field establishment and when a tree flowers and fruits is generally shorted. This means that farmers can realize revenues more quickly.

Improved Fallows

Natural fallow is land resting from cultivation, usually used for grazing or left to natural vegetation for a long period to restore soil fertility lost from growing crops. Improved fallow is also land resting from cultivation but the vegetation comprises planted and managed species of leguminous trees, shrubs and herbaceous cover crops. These cover crops rapidly replenish soil fertility in one or at most two growing seasons. They shorten the time required to restore soil fertility; they help to improve farmland productivity because the plant vegetation that follows them is superior in quality; and they increase the range of outputs, because the woody fallow species can also produce fuel wood and stakes. This practice aims to describe how to establish and manage improved fallow as an innovative agroforestry technology that can meet the different needs of the farmers and improve the natural resource base. It is intended to serve as a useful guide for extension staff, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations and farmers.

Control of bovine trypanosomosis in Bolivia: fly avoidance strategies

Mechanical transmission by tabanid flies, especially Tabanus occidentalis is likely to be the principal method of transmission for trypanosomes in Bolivia. Control regimes based on fly avoidance strategies in particular could result in a significant reduction of the direct effects of tabanid flies, and eventually, of transmission risk.

FABRICATION D’UN ENFUMOIR METALLIQUE A SOUFFLET

Cette fiche présente un modèle d’enfumoir fabriqué par la Plateforme des Apiculteurs des Cataractes, en RDC qui ne nécessite pas de soudures. Vous y trouverez des schémas bien détaillés, des photos et conseils permettant à tous bricoleurs/artisans de se lancer dans des essais de fabrication d’un modèle d’enfumoir simplifié dont l’efficacité a été reconnue par de nombreux apiculteurs. Cette fiche a été écrite par BNSS en collaboration avec André Makenbo de la Plateforme des Apiculteurs des Cataractes (PLAAC), en RDC.

Raising Chicken without Grain: the Integrated Compost and Poultry System

The integrated compost and poultry system is a farming method that combines composting, poultry raising, and egg production. It is a low-cost method to raise chickens while producing good quality compost. Feed costs are almost eliminated because food scraps, manure, and mulch are used for feed – all of which can be obtained from either the same farm or sourced cheaply from nearby restaurants or markets. These birds are fed a zero-grain diet and are comparatively more robust and toned than grain-fed chickens. The number of eggs produced from compost-fed chickens is the same, if not more (by up to 1/3), than that of grain-fed chickens. The protein content in the chicken feed is high and very good quality compost is made from this system. The system explained in this technology employs a trailer that provides housing for protection of predators, collection of eggs, and capture of feces of the chicken to enrich the compost. An automatic watering system ensures that there is always enough water for the birds to keep them hydrated. The resulting compost is rich in nutrients and is recycled into vegetable gardens that produce high quality fruits and vegetables. This system is designed for about 36 adult birds because the chicken coop (a repurposed trailer) has six perches; each perch holds six chickens. The chickens have the option to lay their eggs on two different sides of the trailer where they are housed. Depending on the breed and the age of the birds, in four weeks’ time, this system will produce a high amount of quality compost, over 200 eggs, and robust chickens that can continue to produce eggs or be processed for food.

Kuxur rum agroforestry system, Guatemala

The translation of the technology is still under development. Please refer to the Spanish article: http://teca.fao.org/es/read/8635.

Technologie de la ruche FONGE

Cette fiche, présente la ruche FONGE qui est un modèle de ruche intermédiaire entre la ruche à barrette modèle Kenyane et la ruche à cadres modèle Dadant. Ce modèle a été mis en place et expérimenté sur le terrain par le Groupe d’Initiative Locale Camerounais « Apiculture Lumière du Cameroun » (GIC LUMICAM). Le modèle ayant fait ses preuves, il a commencé à être vulgarisé au Cameroun par le GIC LUMICAM et Christophe Fonge a le plaisir de vous la présenter à travers cette fiche technique. Celle-ci reprend une comparaison entre différents modèles de ruche, les plans et les détails de fabrication de la ruche FONGE. Bonne découverte.

Les virus des abeilles

Les maladies virales des abeilles sont répandues à travers le monde. Elles sont généralement sous-évaluées par les apiculteurs: elles peuvent causer de graves pertes économiques si elles sont associées à d'autres maladies des abeilles. L’acarien Varroa destructor a grandement contribué à augmenter l'incidence des maladies virales. Varroa est un support passif de virus d'abeilles qui sont transmis aux abeilles à travers la salive de l'acarien. En outre, le varroa affaiblit le système immunitaire des abeilles, ce qui peut permettre la réactivation d'infections virales latentes déjà présentes dans le corps de l'abeille. D’autres maladies d’abeilles qui créent les conditions pour l'apparition de maladies virales sont la nosémose, la loque européenne et l'amibiase. La transmission du virus se produit généralement horizontalement (par exemple à travers les excréments d'abeilles, la gelée royale, la salive du varroa, l'apiculteur), mais la transmission des principaux virus d'abeilles se produit verticalement (de la reine au couvain). Cette fiche décrit les causes et les symptômes des virus chez les abeilles, comment ces maladies se propagent, et la façon de les aborder et d'empêcher leur diffusion.

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