Crop production

This category contains 405 resources

Evergreen Agriculture: The use of fertilizer trees in maize production in Malawi.

Agroforestry is a set of tools which farmers can use to increase yields, build soil fertility, raise their income, and boost their food security. ICRAF and its partners have worked closely with farmers for decades to promote and develop simultaneous intercropping practices to address the challenges in soil fertility facing smallholder farmers.

As supplementary technology in evergreen agriculture, agroforestry technology will focus on the concept of simultaneous intercropping of proven fertilizer trees in replenishing soil fertility and increasing crop yields. Simultaneous intercropping is an agroforestry technique whereby nitrogen-fixing woody trees are simultaneously grown with annual crops on the same piece of land at the same time. This is done in order to improve soil fertility and increase yields. While the trees are on the land throughout the year, the crops planted at the beginning of the rainy season dominate during the growing season.

Evergreen Agriculture: Conservation Agriculture in maize production in Malawi.

Evergreen Agriculture is a combination of conservation agriculture and agroforestry practices within the same spatial and temporal dimensions. In other circles, evergreen agriculture is referred to as agroforestry based conservation agriculture or Conservation Agriculture With Trees (CAWT). Evergreen agriculture is being tested by ICRAF in conjunction with partners in Malawi and across Africa as the means for enhancing soil fertility, increasing crop productivity and increasing food production.

This section will focus on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture (CA) as applied in maize production in Malawi. Conservation agriculture also improves the soil health and productivity as well as improves the crop production. ICRAF envisages that a combination of these two technologies together with other technologies will improve soil health and improve crop production and finally improves food security in Malawi.

Establishing a tree nursery

At present the need to plant trees on farms is on the increase. It is difficult, however, for smallholders to access – at the right time, in the right quantities and of high quality – the trees that they want to plant. In order to meet present and future demand for planting materials, there is a need to promote on-farm and community tree nurseries. Such nurseries can be owned and managed by individual farmers, by self-help groups, by schools, by churches and/or by a range of other local institutions. They provide income-generating opportunities, act as models for further nursery development, provide seedlings more cheaply to planters, and can raise the particular species that local people are interested in. The practice describes the various steps involved in the establishment of a tree nursery.

Grafting Techniques of Allanblackia spp

This technology describes various stages of propagating Allanblackia species by grafting.

Grafting is a technique widely used in horticulture and forestry for the mass production of selected plants, and is one of the most successful methods for propagating Allanblackia vegetative. The technique involves formation of a union between scions taken from desirable mother trees and rootstocks that are normally young or healthy seedlings established in the nursery.

By grafting, the period between field establishment and when a tree flowers and fruits is generally shorted. This means that farmers can realize revenues more quickly.

Improved Fallows

Natural fallow is land resting from cultivation, usually used for grazing or left to natural vegetation for a long period to restore soil fertility lost from growing crops. Improved fallow is also land resting from cultivation but the vegetation comprises planted and managed species of leguminous trees, shrubs and herbaceous cover crops. These cover crops rapidly replenish soil fertility in one or at most two growing seasons. They shorten the time required to restore soil fertility; they help to improve farmland productivity because the plant vegetation that follows them is superior in quality; and they increase the range of outputs, because the woody fallow species can also produce fuel wood and stakes.

This practice aims to describe how to establish and manage improved fallow as an innovative agroforestry technology that can meet the different needs of the farmers
and improve the natural resource base. It is intended to serve as a useful guide for extension staff, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations
and farmers.

Cercas vivas o cultivo entre líneas para controlar la erosión del suelo en Jamaica

Los pequeños agricultores de Jamaica implementan las cercas vivas o cultivo entre líneas para mitigar los impactos de los peligros hidrometeorológicos. El sistema de cercas vivas o cultivo entre líneas es una práctica agroforestal en donde los árboles de fijación de nitrógeno de crecimiento rápido se siembran en hileras, y los cultivos alimenticios o comerciales se plantan en el espacio entre las hileras ("callejón"). Esta práctica ayuda a controlar la erosión del suelo, aumenta la capacidad de retención de agua del suelo, reduce la deforestación, generalmente mejora la fertilidad y productividad del suelo y diversifica la producción agrícola. Ha habido un alto nivel de aceptación de esta tecnología en el sur de Trelawny, Jamaica, en donde se ha aplicado debido a su fácil implementación, su efectividad en el control de la erosión del suelo y el bajo costo financiero.

Cómo establecer un nuevo huerto de cajú

La adopción de buenas prácticas agrícolas es una base esencial para el establecimiento de una nueva plantación de cajú próspera y exitosa. Esta ficha técnica describe paso a pas y con imágenesel método de preparación del terreno para la instalación de una plantación de cajú. Ha sido diseñada para garantizar una buena iniciación de los nuevos productores de cajú o para aquellos que quieren expandir su producción de cajú. Fue desarollada como material de formación por el proyecto African Cashew Initiative (GIZ) y está dirigida a agentes de extensión agraria, como parte de las sesiones de grupo para la capacitación de productores. La práctica también puede ser consultada por cualquier persona que desee establecer una plantación de cajú. Esta herramienta forma parte de una serie que cubre la fase de establecimiento, buenas prácticas de gestión, cosecha y post-cosecha, así como los aspectos relacionados con la calidad del cajú.

Processamento de Mandioca: Farinha Húmida de Mandioca

Mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) é a terceira maior fonte de calorias nos trópicos, depois do arroz e do milho. Milhões de pessoas em África, Ásia e América Latina dependem da mandioca. É cultivada por agricultores pobres, muitos deles mulheres e frequentemente em terras marginais. Para estes agricultores e suas famílias, a mandioca é vital para a segurança alimentar e criação de rendimento. A mandioca é a matéria-prima base para uma série de produtos transformados, que podem contribuir para aumentar a sua procura, dinamizar a indústria de transformação e para o crescimento económico dos países em desenvolvimento. Esta comunicação descreve a tecnologia para obter farinha de mandioca a partir dos seus tubérculos.

Gestão da Sigatoka Negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) nas plantações de bananeiras

Na República Dominicana a ocorrência de chuvas de elevada intensidade e de inundações é frequente no período dos furações, causam estragos significativos nos sistemas de produção de banana. De entre estes, pode destacar-se o aumento da incidência de doenças como a Sigatoka negra. Esta doença causa a necrose e morte acelerada das folhas, induzindo a maturação prematura, a redução do calibre do fruto e do peso do cacho, causando uma diminuição significativa no volume de produção. Esta situação necessita de uma gestão integrada, funcional e de baixo custo, que inclui práticas culturais destinadas à mitigação das condições favoráveis para o estabelecimento e desenvolvimento da doença, ao aumento do vigor da planta e eliminação de fontes de inóculo dentro da plantação.

Produção de mudas de bananeira para plantação direta

Foi adaptado pela Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola (FHIA) e é aplicável nos locais onde as bananeiras são cultivadas. Tradicionalmente, o produtor de banana planta novas áreas com brotos (rebentos da base da planta mãe) obtidos de plantações destinadas à produção de fruta. Esta prática enfraquece as plantas mãe e reduz a produtividade. A multiplicação rápida consiste no rebentamento acelerado de brotos das socas das bananeiras (plantas mãe) e no rápido desenvolvimento de bananeiras jovens, bloqueando a dominância apical das plantas mãe.

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