Multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice in the Philippines. Cost benefit analysis based on field testing of some lines of Green Super Rice

Summary

This technology describes the testing of multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice (GSR) varieties in the Philippines. The benefits and constraints compared to local varieties are shown in a cost-benefit analysis.

Description

1. Benefits of cultivation Green Super Rice (GSR) varieties

This technology describes the benefits of the cultivation of Green Super Rice (GSR) varieties in the Philippines, compared to local traditional varieties.

Green Super Rice lines are multi-stress tolerant, inbred, non-GMO rice lines developed by Chinese researchers of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2011. They are conventionally bred non-GMO varieties and at the time of writing, they are being developed and tested in Africa and South Asia, including by the government of the Philippines. Research rice lines are those currently-undergoing the screening process of the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC). In the context of the project, these were cultivated in a manner that is supervised and monitored by the Department of Agriculture in collaboration with IRRI-GSR project. Varieties or registered varieties, on the other hand, are those that have passed the NSIC screening process and are authorized for commercial release/use.  

Green Super Rice lines are tolerant to different types of stresses, including abiotic stresses (e.g. drought, salinity, alkalinity, iron toxicity), diseases (e.g. blast, bacterial-leaf-blight, sheath blight, bacterial leaf streak and false smut), and insects (e.g., brown planthopper, green leafhopper, stem borer) and could thus be used across a variety of hazard backdrops and agro-ecosystems

On February 2017, the GSR line commonly known as GSR 8, has been approved as a new variety with the registered name ‘Rc480’ and is now available for commercial use. It has also been noted by the Government certifying body as the ‘standout’ variety in this newly approved batch of 25 varieties. 

Table 1 summarizes the different traits of Green Super Rice lines.

Green super rice field in Camarines Sur, Philippines

Figure 1. Green Super Rice field in Camarines Sur, Philippines

According to figures published by the World Bank, in 2014 agricultural production in the Philippines represented 11.3% of the GDP, with rice being the main crop produced in the country. At the same time, the Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world due to its high vulnerability to natural hazards such as droughts, floods and typhoons. In order to cope with these recurrent hazards, multi-stress tolerant rice lines and varieties are tested by research institutes and implemented across the Philippines. These multi-stress tolerant rice lines include GSR but also traditional/indigenous, conventionally-bred, modern-biotech and hybrids.

The Green Super Rice (GSR) lines cultivated in the communities where data was gathered (256 farms in Bicol and Caraga Regions of Philippines) are GRS1, GRS5a, GRS8, GRS11, GRS12a (tolerant to drought, flood and saline conditions). Since, rice is an important staple crop in the Philippines, increase in yields and production quantities due to enhanced resilience to extreme events could strengthen food security among vulnerable smallholder households.


GSR Line

Traits

Maturity days

GSR5A

Low-input, saline-, drought- submergence tolerant, aromatic

115

GSR8 (now registered variety Rc480)

Low-input, saline-, drought-, submergence tolerant

105

GSR12A

Drought-, saline tolerant, aromatic

115

GSR1

Low-input, saline-, drought tolerant

110

GSR11

Drought-, saline tolerant, cool elevated

110

Table 1. Green Super Rice lines and their traits

2. Cultivating GSR

The cultivation of GSR in the project was done in a way similar to that of local varieties with the standard site-specific adjustments in cultural management activities such as applying fertilizers and other supplements based on plot-level soil fertility and other site-specific variables/characteristics (e.g. whether the farm is often waterlogged/flooded) and risks (e.g. pest and diseases).
 
Inputs distributed to the project beneficiaries in addition to the GSR seeds include Complete fertilizer (NPK), Ammosul, Muriate of Potash and Zinc Sulfate, and Organic Fertilizer.

Farmers were trained and regularly coached by the project team to ensure proper management practices, including necessary risk-reducing practices such as split application of fertilizers, cleaning of drainage canals and increased monitoring for early signs of weather-associated pests and diseases.

3. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Practice

The performance of Green Super Rice (GSR) lines 1, 5a, 8, 11, 12a were assessed at farm-level in 35 farms in the Philippines based on quantitative data collected during the monitoring period during three consecutive seasons., i.e. the 2015 dry and wet seasons, and the 2016 dry season.

The sample included 35 farms in Bicol and Caraga Regions of Philippines, specifically in Camarines Sur (2), Camarines Norte (6), Masbate (7), Catanduanes (5), and Surigao del Norte (15) districts. The sites for these demonstration farms have been specifically chosen because they are located in communities where flood, drought and saltwater intrusion are prevalent. In these areas, farmers often have to live with reduced yield because of these hazards.  

Results were used to conduct a cost-benefit analyses of Green Super Rice and local rice varieties under non-hazard conditions and various hazard conditions, mainly dry spell and drought, floods, pests and delay in the rainy season (time frame: 11 years).

The net benefits obtained from Green Super Rice lines were measured through a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and compared to the net benefits of local rice varieties. The CBA projects the cumulative net present value of benefits obtained from 1 hectare of rice over a period of 11 years (10 percent discount rate is applied to express the future value of costs and benefits in present terms), as well as the benefit-cost ratio (BCR), which is the ratio between total discounted benefits and total discounted costs over the appraisal period.

Figure 2 provides an overview of the outcome of the CBA in non-hazard conditions. In particular, it shows that:

  • During the dry season, the net benefit over 11 years is 19% higher in farms that adopt Green Super Rice, as compared to non-adopters. During the wet season, the increase in the net benefit of Green Super Rice adapters is even bigger, amounting to 58%.
  • The BCR of cultivating GSR lines is higher than that of producing local varieties, in both dry and wet seasons.

Cumulative Net Benefits and Benefit Cost Ratios of Good Practice and Local Practice: Non-hazard conditions

Figure 2: Cumulative Net Benefits and Benefit Cost Ratios of Good Practice and Local Practice ($ per hectare per season): Non-hazard conditions

Figure 3 provides an overview of the outcome of the CBA in hazard conditions. In particular, it shows that:

  • During the dry season, the net benefit over 11 years is 53% higher in farms that adopt Green Super Rice, as compared to non-adopters. During the wet season, the net benefit of Green Super Rice adapters is 33% higher than non-adopters.
  • The BCR of cultivating GSR lines is higher than that of the local practice, in both dry and wet seasons.

Cumulative Net Benefits and Benefit Cost Ratios of Good Practice and Local Practice: Hazard conditions

Figure 3: Cumulative Net Benefits and Benefit Cost Ratios of Good Practice and Local Practice ($ per hectare per season): Hazard conditions

Figure 4 shows the average annual costs and benefits per hectare of growing GSR lines compared to the growing of local varieties under non-hazard conditions; figure 5 the same for hazard conditions.

 
Average annual costs and benefits: Non-Hazard conditions
Figure 4: Average annual costs and benefits (US$ per hectare):Non-Hazard conditions
Costs are direct costs: seeds, labour, pesticide and fertilizer costs compared to gross value of production (Gross value of production = yield x average price of rice)

Average annual costs and benefits: Hazard conditions

Figure 5: Average annual costs and benefits (US$ per hectare):Hazard conditions
Costs are direct costs: seeds, labour, pesticide and fertilizer costs compared to gross value of production (Gross value of production = yield x average price of rice)
3.1 Added benefits

Under non-hazard conditions, the data reveals that the Green Super Rice brings additional net economic benefits in both dry (19% higher) and wet (58% higher) season. Therefore, it is a “no-regret” measure in the sense that they help increase agricultural productivity regardless of the occurrence of hazards.

3.2 Avoided losses

In farms affected by dry spells during the dry season, rice production losses are reduced by 53% (about US$ 374 per ha per year). In the wet season, 33% of losses are avoided (about US$ 219 per hectare per season) in farms affected by hazards (mainly floods and pests).

3.3 Co-benefits

With the adoption of Green Super Rice and after appropriate training, the farmers use a much larger share of organic inputs than before. Consequently the use of chemical inputs is reduced, therefore reducing the environmental impact of the farming practices.

3.4 Climate Change Adaptation related benefits

Green Super Rise is more resistant to hazards such as dry spell and drought, floods and delay in the rainy season and is therefore adapted to face unreliable rains and rainfall variability induced by climate change.

3.5 Market prices

Cost of GSR seeds was 25 USD/ha.

During the monitoring period, GSR was sold in the market at average 0.78 USD/kg while the local rice variety was sold at 0.70 USD/kg.

Validation

1. Context of implementation

As part of the ECHO-funded FAO regional Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) project that supports agriculture in Southeast Asia, 256 farmers were introduced to the multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice and were trained on a set of good practices to enhance the resilience of rice production to increasing natural disasters.

2. Social - target group

Smallholder farmers.

Farmer’s perceptions (20 farmers were interviewed)

  • Sustainability: 75% of the interviewed farmers said they would replicate the good practice in the coming seasons.
  • Knowledge: 95% of farmers interviewed considered that they acquired new knowledge by taking part of the project and implementing the good practice.
  • Early warnings: All interviewed farmers are informed about weather forecast/climate information through TV, radio or local government unit (agriculture extension officers). 95% of them take proactive risk-reducing actions based on early warning messages including adjustments in farming activities such as split application of fertilizers, cleaning of drainage canals and increased monitoring for early signs of weather-associated pests and diseases.
  • More than 60% of the interviewed farmers indicated the importance of extending the good practice (e.g. cultivating Green Super Rice (GSR) varieties through village-level dissemination of good or home-saved seeds), to additional farmers and the importance of sharing cultural management advice when seeds are distributed.
  • Some Green Super Rice lines have been considered “tastier” than local rice varieties (i.e. GSR12a).

Efren Dayaon, a rice farmer from Mercedes in Camarines Norte said “Because of the saltwater intrusion and drought and with no irrigation to wash out the salt particles from my farm, my harvest had gone down to as low as 14 bags.” He added, “Now, you can see how the seeds [GSR lines] are performing in spite of the condition of my farm. I think I can harvest more than 100 bags by the end of this cropping period. Neighbours who pass by my farm often ask about the GSR lines. They are impressed that the rice plants are still in good condition in spite of the saltwater intrusion.”

Another beneficiary farmer from Surigao del Norte, Caraga said “I want to continue planting green super rice because it has a good taste, good grain quality, high yields and resistance to hazards. It is more marketable.”

3. Necessary basic conditions for a successful implementation

Data not available.

4. Constraints (limiting factors) for the implementation of the technology

Data not available.

Minimum requirements for the successful implementation of the practice

In the context of the project, following elements showed to be essential for the successful implementation of the project:

  • For successful implementation at the regional/extension institutional levels: Foundation Seeds and Breeder Seeds from the IRRI-GSR project;
  • Clearance and extension support from the Department of Agriculture.

For successful implementation at the municipal and village levels:

  • Certified seeds clearance from the Department of Agriculture
  • Extension support from local government agriculture offices

Countries

Philippines

Created date

Fri, 19/05/2017 - 17:07

Source(s)

FAO Strategic Objective 5 – Resilience, in FAO

Sustainable development cannot be achieved without resilient livelihoods. People around the world are increasingly exposed to natural hazards and crises – from drought, floods, earthquakes and disease epidemics to conflict, market shocks and complex, protracted crises. Worldwide, 75 percent of poor and food insecure people rely on agriculture and natural resources for their living. They are usually hardest hit by disasters.   

The recurrence of disasters and crises undermines countries’ efforts to eradicate hunger and malnutrition and to achieve sustainable development. People who rely on farming, livestock, forests or fishing for their food and income – around one-third of the world’s population – are often the most vulnerable and affected. Climate change, in particular extreme weather-related shocks, is exacerbating the situation. SP5 assists countries to increase the resilience of households, communities and institutions to more effectively prevent and cope with threats and disasters that impact agriculture, food security and nutrition. It focuses across all agricultural subsectors on . 

  • natural hazards and related disasters such as floods, droughts and earthquakes 
  • food chain threats caused by plant pests and diseases and animal diseases, as well as food safety threats such as radio nuclear contamination or avian flu
  • conflicts and protracted crises.

SP5 helps countries and communities to prevent and cope with these different areas of risks and shocks through normative guidance, technical standards and their implementation in the field. FAO resilience work feeds into global processes such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the One Health approach for food chain crises and the Committee on World Food Security's Agenda for Action for addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. SP5 country support like the implementation of DRR good practices at country and local levels is delivered in close collaboration with and based on technical advice from FAO technical divisions, including AGA, AGP, CBC, FIA and FOA.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Previous, Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) in FAO

The Climate Impact, Adaptation and Environmental Sustainability team of the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) develops the knowledge base on the impact of climate, climate change and climate variability on agriculture, and facilitates the use of this information and knowledge through field projects. The team also supports capacity development at national level by supporting governments to integrate disaster risk reduction in the agriculture sector as well as identifying, testing and validating in cooperation with various partners climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction good practice options to build resilience of all actors in agriculture to the impact of climate change and extreme weather events.

Organic Agriculture work in FAO:

The coordination of FAO’s organic agriculture activities is housed in the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division. Since 1999, the Organic Agriculture programme works along three main areas:

  • Strengthening the ability to exchange information and to set-up organic agriculture networks, in order to ensure that producers, operators and governments have access to the reliable and quality information needed for informed decision-making, for directing research and extension, and for making investments;
  • Developing and disseminating knowledge and tools that support organic plant protection, soil and nutrient management, animal husbandry and post-harvest operations, especially in developing countries and market-marginalized areas;
  • Assisting governments in designing the types of legal and policy frameworks that provide support to farmers by facilitating the marketing and trade of certified organic products that meet international inspection and certification standards.

For queries related to climate change and disaster risk reductions, you can contact: DRR-for-FNS@fao.org or climate-change@fao.org

For queries on organic agriculture, you can contact: Nadia Scialabba. Nadia.Scialabba@fao.org 

Country: 
Italy

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in Los Baños, Philippines, develops new rice varieties and rice crop/post-harvest management techniques that help rice farmers improve the yield, profitability, and quality of their rice in an environmentally sustainable way. The institute is helping to reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers through collaborative research, partnerships, and the strengthening of national agricultural research and extension systems. IRRI work with our public and private sector partners in national agricultural research and extension systems in major rice-growing countries to do research, training, and knowledge transfer. IRRI social and economic research also informs governments to help them formulate policy to improve the equitable supply of rice. 

Contacts: 
Contact person: 
Corinta Q. Guerta
Contact email: 
Country: 
Philippines