Sub-Saharan Africa

This category contains 337 resources

Evergreen Agriculture: The use of fertilizer trees in maize production in Malawi.

Agroforestry is a set of tools which farmers can use to increase yields, build soil fertility, raise their income, and boost their food security. ICRAF and its partners have worked closely with farmers for decades to promote and develop simultaneous intercropping practices to address the challenges in soil fertility facing smallholder farmers.

As supplementary technology in evergreen agriculture, agroforestry technology will focus on the concept of simultaneous intercropping of proven fertilizer trees in replenishing soil fertility and increasing crop yields. Simultaneous intercropping is an agroforestry technique whereby nitrogen-fixing woody trees are simultaneously grown with annual crops on the same piece of land at the same time. This is done in order to improve soil fertility and increase yields. While the trees are on the land throughout the year, the crops planted at the beginning of the rainy season dominate during the growing season.

Evergreen Agriculture: Conservation Agriculture in maize production in Malawi.

Evergreen Agriculture is a combination of conservation agriculture and agroforestry practices within the same spatial and temporal dimensions. In other circles, evergreen agriculture is referred to as agroforestry based conservation agriculture or Conservation Agriculture With Trees (CAWT). Evergreen agriculture is being tested by ICRAF in conjunction with partners in Malawi and across Africa as the means for enhancing soil fertility, increasing crop productivity and increasing food production.

This section will focus on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture (CA) as applied in maize production in Malawi. Conservation agriculture also improves the soil health and productivity as well as improves the crop production. ICRAF envisages that a combination of these two technologies together with other technologies will improve soil health and improve crop production and finally improves food security in Malawi.

Establishing a tree nursery

At present the need to plant trees on farms is on the increase. It is difficult, however, for smallholders to access – at the right time, in the right quantities and of high quality – the trees that they want to plant. In order to meet present and future demand for planting materials, there is a need to promote on-farm and community tree nurseries. Such nurseries can be owned and managed by individual farmers, by self-help groups, by schools, by churches and/or by a range of other local institutions. They provide income-generating opportunities, act as models for further nursery development, provide seedlings more cheaply to planters, and can raise the particular species that local people are interested in. The practice describes the various steps involved in the establishment of a tree nursery.

Grafting Techniques of Allanblackia spp

This technology describes various stages of propagating Allanblackia species by grafting.

Grafting is a technique widely used in horticulture and forestry for the mass production of selected plants, and is one of the most successful methods for propagating Allanblackia vegetative. The technique involves formation of a union between scions taken from desirable mother trees and rootstocks that are normally young or healthy seedlings established in the nursery.

By grafting, the period between field establishment and when a tree flowers and fruits is generally shorted. This means that farmers can realize revenues more quickly.

Improved Fallows

Natural fallow is land resting from cultivation, usually used for grazing or left to natural vegetation for a long period to restore soil fertility lost from growing crops. Improved fallow is also land resting from cultivation but the vegetation comprises planted and managed species of leguminous trees, shrubs and herbaceous cover crops. These cover crops rapidly replenish soil fertility in one or at most two growing seasons. They shorten the time required to restore soil fertility; they help to improve farmland productivity because the plant vegetation that follows them is superior in quality; and they increase the range of outputs, because the woody fallow species can also produce fuel wood and stakes.

This practice aims to describe how to establish and manage improved fallow as an innovative agroforestry technology that can meet the different needs of the farmers
and improve the natural resource base. It is intended to serve as a useful guide for extension staff, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations
and farmers.

Apicultura: Cría yesificada (Cría calcárea / Ascosferosis / Pollo escayolado) y Cría petrificada (Aspergilosis)

La Cría yesificada, también conocida como Cría calcárea, Ascosferosis o Pollo escayolado, y la Cría petrificada o Aspergilosis son enfermedades de las abejas melíferas (Apis mellifera) que se dan en todo el mundo.

La Cría yesificada es causada por el hongo Ascosphaera apis, y afecta a la cría. La Cría petrificada es causada por los hongos Aspergillus flavus y Aspergillus fumigatus y afecta tanto a la cría como a las abejas adultas.

Esta ficha técnica describe las causas y síntomas de la Cría yesificada y de la Cría petrificada, cómo se propagan, cómo prevenir y tratar estas enfermedades.

Comment transformer la cire d'abeille brute en produits à valeur ajoutée

La cire d'abeille est une cire naturelle produite par les abeilles du genre Apis. Les abeilles ouvrières produisent de la cire qu’elles utilisent principalement pour la construction des rayons et des cellules où les abeilles stockent le miel, et où la reine dépose les œufs. Les rayons structurent le nid des abeilles. La cire d'abeille offre à l'apiculteur la possibilité de générer des revenus supplémentaires provenant de l'extraction et du traitement de la cire en produits à valeur ajoutée. Cette fiche technique explique comment traiter la cire d'abeille en produits à valeur ajoutée. Elle comprend également certaines indications pour l'achat et le stockage de la cire d'abeille, et quelques informations sur la composition de la cire.

Processamento de Mandioca: Farinha Húmida de Mandioca

Mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) é a terceira maior fonte de calorias nos trópicos, depois do arroz e do milho. Milhões de pessoas em África, Ásia e América Latina dependem da mandioca. É cultivada por agricultores pobres, muitos deles mulheres e frequentemente em terras marginais. Para estes agricultores e suas famílias, a mandioca é vital para a segurança alimentar e criação de rendimento. A mandioca é a matéria-prima base para uma série de produtos transformados, que podem contribuir para aumentar a sua procura, dinamizar a indústria de transformação e para o crescimento económico dos países em desenvolvimento. Esta comunicação descreve a tecnologia para obter farinha de mandioca a partir dos seus tubérculos.

Controlo das lagartas da maçã do algodoeiro (cotton bollworms) com a utilização de formigas predadoras, Uganda

O insetos são o principal constrangimento da produção agrícola no Uganda. A Helicoverpa armigera (bollworm americana), Earias vittella (lagarta da maçã) e Pectinophora gossypiella (lagarta rosada) estão entre os dez insetos que se alimentam e danificam os botões florais, flores, maçãs jovens e maduras do algodoeiro, provocando o aborto de até 87% dos frutos e na consequente redução da produtividade e rendimento do agricultor. Esta tecnologia da NARO (National Agricultural Research Organisation - Uganda) descreve o uso de formigas predadoras como meio de controlo biológico das lagartas da maçã do algodoeiro.

Produção de Sorgo Epuripur, Uganda

O sorgo (também conhecido por massambala e mapira, respetivamente em Angola e Moçambique) é o terceiro cereal alimentar mais importante no Uganda, depois de milho e do milho painço (milheto), ocupando cerca de 285 000 ha de terra arável. É sobretudo utilizado como alimento e para cerveja. Na tentativa de melhorar a segurança alimentar e aumentar os rendimentos dos agregados familiares rurais pobres, o SAARI (Serere Agricultural and Animal Research Institute) desenvolveu um conjunto de tecnologias, das quais se destacam duas variedades melhoradas de sorgo - Sekedo e Epuripur – lançadas em 1995.

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