Technologies by country

This category contains 25 resources

Transplantação de sorgo e milho painço em regiões semiáridas

Os principais desafios para os agricultores das zonas semiáridas e áridas, das regiões tropicais e subtropicais, são a reduzida segurança alimentar, a instabilidade da produção e o risco de perda de colheitas. Estes riscos estão associados ao maior constrangimento físico à produção agrícola nessas zonas, ou seja, à irregularidade e à imprevisibilidade da precipitação, resultando em escassez de água. Sob estas condições, há um risco considerável de perdas de colheita, germinação irregular e elevados custos em novas sementeiras. A transplantação, dentro deste sistema, foi uma solução que permitiu aos agricultores maximizar a estação de crescimento e minimizar o risco de perda de colheitas, germinação irregular e reduzir os custos do preenchimento de falhas. As colheitas precoces são importantes para os agricultores, uma vez que ajudam a compensar períodos de escassez alimentar. A transplantação de cultivares precoces promove a redução destes períodos, permitindo a antecipação da colheita em duas a três semanas e o aumento da produtividade (que geralmente duplica), em relação aos sistemas de sementeira direta, disponibilizando alimentos nos períodos de maior escassez e em que são mais caros no mercado.

Produção Integrada e Gestão de Pragas (SIGCP) para pequenos produtores de café na África do Sul

A cultura do café é uma importante estratégia de subsistência para os pequenos agricultores dos países da África Oriental, nomeadamente para a Tanzânia, Quénia, Uganda e Ruanda, onde o café é uma importante exportação agrícola. A produção dos pequenos agricultores é menos significativa nos países do Sul, como o Malawi e a Zâmbia. No entanto, embora o sector dos pequenos produtores seja pequeno, o café é uma importante fonte de rendimento para as famílias rurais, particularmente em sítios distantes dos mercados de outros produtos agrícolas. O objetivo foi melhorar o rendimento dos pequenos produtores de café, do Malawi e da Zâmbia, através da melhoria da gestão das culturas e pragas. Isto foi feito desenvolvendo e promovendo Sistemas Integrados de Gestão de Culturas e Pragas (SIGCP) para as duas principais pragas: broca branca do caule e antracnose dos frutos verdes (coffee berry disease - CBD).

Uso de terra de diatomáceas para proteger o grão armazenado nas explorações: Sorgo, Milho e feijão-fradinho

Agricultores de todo o mundo incorrem em graves prejuízos na produção armazenada por causa dos estragos causados por insetos, sendo frequentemente forçados a vende-la prematuramente. Muitos utilizam práticas de conservação tradicionais ou, quando conseguem pagar, compram pesticidas sintéticos. A eficácia das práticas tradicionais é variável. O uso de pesticidas sintéticos também tem problemas. Os agricultores necessitam e exigem melhores opções para proteger o seu grão. A terra de diatomáceas (TD) é um meio alternativo e viável para proteger os grãos armazenados.

Prevenir queimaduras tipo Stackburn no armazenamento de milho, África

Queimaduras tipo Stackburn no armazenamento de milho são danos causados pela acumulação de calor no interior das pilhas de sacos em armazéns comerciais de milho na África subsariana e caracteriza-se pela descoloração castanha do grão. O milho afetado pode perder valor comercial ou ter que ser desviado para alimentação animal. Quando a descoloração é severa, as agências de ajuda alimentar, quando tentam distribuir milho afetado, podem encontrar resistência ou mesmo rejeição por parte dos beneficiários, sendo obrigadas a descartar grandes quantidades de milho a custos consideráveis (até £ 23 milhões ao longo de 1993 na África do Sul). A acumulação de calor está associada ao reduzido fluxo de ar, em resultado da utilização de sacos de polipropileno tecido. A construção das pilhas de sacos, com intervalos no seu interior para permitir o fluxo de ar e/ou o retorno aos sacos de juta, previne a ocorrência de queimaduras tipo Stackburn, embora com ligeira perda de capacidade de armazenamento.

Produção de silagem de alta qualidade para a alimentação animal em pequenas explorações, Zimbabué

Muitos agricultores de áreas de baixo potencial produtivo possuem gado e produzem leite para o seu próprio consumo e para venda. No entanto, na estação seca, o pasto natural e os restolhos não são adequados para garantir a lactação, sendo necessária a alimentação suplementar para manter a produção de leite. O custo da alimentação animal é proibitivo, tornando a produção de leite uma atividade sazonal, em vez de anual. A melhor qualidade nutricional da forragem coincide com as chuvas, tornando a ensilagem uma opção prática para a conservação. Produziu-se, então, um manual para a produção de silagem de culturas forrageiras anuais e perenes, adequadas às zonas marginais e semi-áridas da África Austral – Manual de Produção e Conservação de Forragens (Forage Production and Conservation Manual (MHERE et al., 2002)). Este documento inclui a descrição de técnicas para a produção de culturas forrageiras e produção de silagem.

Soaking Seeds (Seed Priming) to Improve Crop Yields

Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.
This practice explains as well how farmers can improve the nutrient supply to crops at a low-cost and effective way .

Tsetse control: How to use Tsetse traps with an odour dispenser

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) infest over 11 million km2 of Africa, and are vectors of Trypanosomosis (or Trypanosomiasis) in both man and domestic livestock. For example, it is estimated that tsetse occur over 7 percent of Zimbabwe and 60 percent of Tanzania and Trypanosomosis has an important negative impact on livestock production in these areas. An odour dispenser is an integral component of tsetse traps. The following technology describes the use of a simple odour dispensers in addition to tsetse traps under practical field conditions.

Tsetse and trypanosomiasis control measures: Restricted application of insecticide to livestock

Since tsetse flies feed mostly on the legs and mostly on the largest animals in the herd, an application of pour-on insecticides or sprays restricted to the legs of cows, bulls and draught animals has been shown to be effective in controlling tsetse. This also results in a significant cost saving to the farmer, of up to 80 to 90%.

Decision making tool: checklist for animal nutrition studies

During a series of DFID Livestock Production Programme (LPP) workshops on smallstock it became apparent there was a need to improve the effectiveness of nutritional studies designed to support the contribution of smallstock to the well-being of resource-poor farmers and communities in developing countries. At the 4th LPP workshop on small stock held in Masaka, Uganda the delegates identified the need to produce a precise and easy-to-use aide memoir, or checklist.

This checklist, 'A decision-making checklist for animal nutrition studies in livestock is intended to help researchers at the planning stage of a nutrition experiment or feeding trial with farm livestock, especially ruminants.

Participatory approaches: Soaking seeds (seed priming) to improve crop yields

Crop establishment is often poor in the semiarid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.

Tsetse control: How to make a plastic cage for tsetse traps

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) infest over 11 million sq km of Africa, and are vectors of Trypanosomosis (or Trypanosomiasis) in both man and domestic livestock. For example, it is estimated that tsetse occur over 7 percent of Zimbabwe and 60 percent of Tanzania and Trypanosomosis has an important negative impact on livestock production in these areas. In addition to the use of trypanocidal drugs, control, of Trypanosomosis has been tackled largely by control of the tsetse fly vector and a range of techniques are available, each with advantages and disadvantages. Methods include aerial spraying, sterile insect techniques, insecticide treated cattle, and odour bait traps and targets. Furthermore, it is generally considered that deployment of traps and/or targets that destroy a proportion of the tsetse population will lead to a reduction in the incidence of trypanosomosis. The following technology describes a set of simple step-by-step instructions on how to construct a cage, made from easily available plastic bottles, for use as an Epsilon tsetse trap.

Seed priming to improve stand establishment and yield in maize

Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.

Seed priming to improve stand establishment and yield in sorghum

Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.

Tsetse control: How to deploy a target

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) infest over 11 million sq km of Africa, and are vectors of Trypanosomosis (or Trypanosomiasis) in both humans and domestic livestock. For example, it is estimated that tsetse occur over 7 percent of Zimbabwe and 60 percent of Tanzania and Trypanosomosis has an important negative impact on livestock production in these areas. Control of Trypanosomosis has been tackled largely by control of the tsetse fly vector and a range of techniques are available, each with advantages and disadvantages. Methods include aerial spraying, sterile insect techniques, insecticide treated cattle, and odour bait tsetse traps and targets. It is considered that deployment of traps and/or targets that destroy a proportion of the tsetse population will lead to a reduction in the incidence of Trypanosomosis.
The following technology describes a set of simple step-by-step instructions on how to assemble and deploy a target for tsetse control.

Transplanting sorghum and pearl millet in semi-arid regions

The main challenges for farmers in semi-arid and arid areas of the tropics and subtropics are poor food security, yield instability and risk of crop failure. These are associated with the biggest physical constraint to crop production in these areas:
erratic and unreliable rainfall resulting in shortages of water. Under these conditions there is a considerable risk of failed crops, patchy stands and high re-planting costs. Transplanting within this system was a practical option which enabled farmers to maximise the growing season and minimise the risk of failed crops, patchy stands and reduce the costs of re-planting. Early crops are important to farmers as they break the hunger gap; transplanting early crops breaks this gap two to three weeks earlier, and yield more (often double) than normal direct-sown crops, providing food when it is in short supply and very expensive in the market place.

Conservation tillage management for marginal small farm systems, Zimbabwe

Moisture conserving tillage and weeding practices for a maize-based cropping system were tested in semi-arid Zimbabwe, an area characterised by shortage of labour and draught animal power (DAP), frequent drought, and at times excessive weed growth. Using a ripper tine attached to the existing plough for planting, and weeding with the plough, practices selected by farmers from on-farm trials benefited households who had access to DAP and labour. However, the 35% of households who had no DAP or implements experienced severe labour constraints, generally planted late, achieved low yields, rarely produced a saleable surplus and were cash constrained. Although these households may benefit from more timely availability of hired DAP for planting, when DAP owners complete their own planting more quickly by the minimum tillage/planting technique, they were unlikely to relieve their weeding constraint by using the labour saving weeding technology, as this would incur further hire costs for DAP.

Improving the productivity of draught animal power in sub-Saharan Africa

The development and modification of tillage implement designs and practices suitable for donkeys and cattle of limited draught capability was undertaken. This was accomplished through the compilation of a detailed database of animal-drawn tillage implements, an evaluation of potentially low draught implements on station and on farm, and the development of a light weight plough, now in commercial production, as well as a light cultivator.

Fishery management: Length frequency distribution analysis (LFDA) and catch effort data analysis (CEDA) software

Length Frequency Distribution Analysis (LFDA) and Catch and Effort Data Analysis (CEDA) are software packages with analytical tools to guide and assist stock assessment and develop fisheries management policies in developing countries. The outputs of LFDA include estimates of growth and mortality and precautionary management advice. CEDA analyses catch and effort data to provide estimates of current and unexploited stock biomass, as well as other parameters of fish population dynamics. Results provide managers with estimates of the potential yield of fish stocks, taking account of uncertainty and variable recruitment. The software packages are available in a Windows-standard user-interface.

Tsetse Muse: Helping planners to design cost-effective tsetse control strategies

Tsetse flies occur in 36 countries and a total area of between 9 and 10 million square kilometres in Africa. Throughout this area the disease transmitted by the tsetse fly, Trypanosomiasis (or Trypanosomosis), has a significant effect on large numbers of livestock. About 50 million cattle and tens of millions of small ruminants are considered to be at risk from Trypanosomiasis, and the disease is considered as an obstacle to poverty reduction and food security in Africa. In addition, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 60 million people, mainly living in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, are at risk of human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. An interactive programme to assess the impact of control operations on tsetse populations in relatively homogenous savanna habitats of Eastern and Southern Africa. Tsetse Muse is designed to help planners choose strategies for controlling tsetse from the range of currently available techniques. The programme allows the user to define the parameters for a tsetse population and then view the impact and cost-effectiveness of different control strategies, including combinations of different techniques.

Production of high quality silage for dry season feeding of smallholder livestock, Zimbabwe

Many farmers in low potential areas own cattle and milk them for their own consumption and sale. However, in the dry season, natural grazing and crop residues are inadequate to support lactation, making supplementary feed necessary to maintain milk production. Costs of purchased feeds are prohibitive, making dairy a seasonal rather than an annual activity. Optimum nutrient quality of forage coincides with the rains, making silage a practical option for conservation.

A manual was produced for the growing and ensiling of annual and perennial forage crops suited to marginal and semi-arid areas of Southern Africa 'Forage Production and Conservation Manual', (MHERE et al., 2002). This includes descriptions of techniques for growing the crops and production of silage.

Tsetse control: Insecticide treatment of cattle, Zimbabwe

Insecticide treatment of cattle is an important method of tsetse control. However, insecticides applied to cattle have been shown to contaminate dung. This has a significant impact on insects using the dung as a resource, e.g. dung beetles. This reduces the recycling of dung and has a negative impact on productivity of pasture. However, applications of insecticide restricted to only the legs and belly reduce risks to dung fauna without compromising efficacy to tsetse.

Diatomaceous earth to protect farm-stored grain: Sorghum, Maize and Cow-peas in Zimbabwe and Tanzania.

Farmers all over the world incur serious losses to stored produce because of insect damage and are frequently forced to sell prematurely. Many use traditional storage protectant practices or, when they can afford it, purchase synthetic chemical pesticides. The effectiveness of traditional practices is variable. Using synthetic pesticides also has problems. Farmers need and demand better options for protecting their grain. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a viable alternative means of protecting stored grain.

Grain stores construction, Zimbabwe

In Zimbabwe and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa farmers use grain stores constructed from grass, stalks of cereal crops and wooden poles. Some of these constituent parts are increasingly scarce but mud plastered stores, supported on concrete-filled plastic pipes, offer the benefits of improved resistance to termites, insect grain pests and rodents. Environmental sustainability would be improved though reduction in use of scarce wood construction materials, although the stores would not be sufficiently gas tight to allow fumigation.

Preventing stackburn heat damage to maize stored, Africa

Stackburn in maize is heat damage characterised by a brown discoloration of the grain resulting from heat build-up in the interior of stacks held in commercial storage in sub-Saharan Africa. Affected maize may be downgraded in commercial markets or have to be diverted for animal-feed use. Where discoloration is severe, food-aid agencies attempting to distribute stackburned maize may meet beneficiary resistance or rejection and be forced to dispose of large quantities of deteriorated maize at considerable cost (up to £23 million during 1993 in southern Africa). Heat build is linked to restricted airflow resulting from the use of woven polypropylene sacks. Building stacks with internal gaps to allow air flow and/or a return to jute sacks prevents stackburn, with some slight loss in plinth capacity.

Tsetse control using Epsilon trap made in Zimbabwe

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) infest over 11 million sq km of Africa, and are vectors of Trypanosomosis (or Trypanosomiasis) in both humans and domestic livestock. For example, it is estimated that tsetse occur over 7 percent of Zimbabwe and 60 percent of Tanzania and Trypanosomosis has an important negative impact on livestock production in these areas. In addition to the use of trypanocidal drugs, control, of Trypanosomosis has been tackled largely by control of the tsetse fly vector and a range of techniques are available, each with advantages and disadvantages. Methods include aerial spraying, sterile insect techniques, insecticide treated cattle, and odour bait traps and targets. Therefore, a set of simple step-by-step instructions is presented of how to assemble an Epsilon trap for tsetse, adapted and tested for use in Zimbabwe.