Technologies by country

This category contains 72 resources

Abordagens participativas: melhoramento de arroz orientado para o cliente para planícies de sequeiro, terras de encosta e baixas aluvionares da Índia Oriental

Os agricultores mais pobres das áreas marginais beneficiaram pouco da produção de alto rendimento e das variedades próprias da "revolução verde", que transformaram as produtividades nas áreas mais favoráveis. Nos estados do nordeste da Índia, os agricultores que cultivam arroz de sequeiro em solos declivosos e de baixa fertilidade, continuam a produzir variedades locais, de baixo rendimento e mais suscetíveis a praga e doenças. Um melhoramento de plantas mais eficiente e altamente orientado para o cliente, proporcionou uma solução rápida e a custos otimizados para o problema, através do desenvolvimento de novas variedades de arroz de sequeiro superiores às variedades tradicionais.

Conservação e armazenamento de amido húmido de mandioca

O Amido de mandioca de melhor qualidade é o obtido por processamento a partir de polpa recém-extraída. Em muitas unidades de processamento de mandioca, o amido extraído é armazenado húmido em tanques durante o período de pico de colheita (2-5 meses). O armazenamento a longo prazo do amido de mandioca, nestas condições, reduz a qualidade e, consequentemente, da qualidade e preço de venda do amido seco resultante. A tecnologia aqui descrita permite manter a qualidade do amido de durante este período de armazenamento.

Sistemas silvo-pastoris e de sebes em sistemas de produção integrados, Índia

Os agricultores de baixos rendimentos das zonas de clima tropical semiárido, como a região sul da Índia, combinam tradicionalmente diferentes atividades para diversificar os meios de subsistência, de modo a reduzir o impacto das calamidades naturais como são os casos das secas. O sistema silvo-pastoril de Acacia Leucophoea e Cenchrus Ciliaris, é um sistema integrado que disponibiliza alimentação adequada para caprinos e ovinos, bem como lenha para responder às necessidades energéticas das famílias. Culturas anuais, como o milho e o sorgo, podem ser produzidas entre as linhas das árvores, o que ajuda a proteger o solo, reduzir a erosão e diversificar os meios de subsistência rurais. As gramíneas forrageiras são plantadas/semeadas nas entrelinhas das árvores para reforçar a produção forragens para os animais. As árvores também funcionam como quebra-ventos.

Making farm-made fish feed for small-scale farms

Fish feed/aquafeed is one of the most expensive inputs for small aquaculture farms. At the same time it is one of the most important components, especially for the whole aquaculture ecosystem. This is also true for aquaponics because the fish feed sustains both the fish and vegetable growth. The technology below provides two simple recipes for a balanced fish feed for use in small-scale fish farms or aquaponic systems. The first formulation is made with proteins of vegetable origin, mainly soybean meal. The second formulation is mainly made with fishmeal. In addition, the technology provides a selection of live fish feed to supplement the pelleted feed. This technology of farm-made aquafeed production is most appropriate for small-scale aquaculture farming, and is best used when commercial feed is difficult or expensive to obtain.

Innovations developed in Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree, horseradish tree) propagation for enhancing nursery income in Tamil Nadu, India

Air layering is a technique followed in the nursery of ornamental/horticultural crops to promote vegetative propagation.
This practice explains how the propagation process can be accelerated by a so-called “double-layering method”. This allows the nursery to use air-layering in a more efficient way and increase the nursery’s income.
The double pit planting with two trees planted next to each other allows to nearly double the productivity of trees. The application of double pit planting together with the double air-layering practice contributes to the improvement of the efficiency of used resources for the propagation and production of moringa and indirectly to poverty reduction by enhanced income of the nursery.

Green manuring in sugarcane production for soil improvement and water efficiency, Tamil Nadu, India

Sugarcane production requires frequent irrigation, for the crop needs a lot of water in the production cycle. It is very difficult to raise it in sandy soils, as they are generally low in organic matter content and therefore not retaining soil moisture very well. Hence, sugarcane production on sandy soils is generally water-inefficient.
However, sugarcane can be raised successfully on arenosols and other soils consisting of mainly sandy soil texture by enhancing the soil organic matter content. This can be done in form of green manuring with the subsequent incorporation of the remnants of the green manure crops in the soil through successive mulching.
This practice presents a row-intercropping system with two different green manure crops for soil improvement in sugarcane production in Tamil Nadu, India. By improving the soil, sugarcane can be raised as ratoon crop for several years without much loss of yield. It explains a water efficient way for raising sugarcane on poor sandy soils, by increasing the organic matter content. Next to enhancing the water holding capacity of the soil, it additionally benefits soil fertility and thus potentially increases sugarcane production, especially when legumes are used as green manure crops.

Innovations for raising Malabar Neem (Melia dubia) in Tamil Nadu, India

This practice focuses on facilitating the nursery germination and plantation of the “Malabar Neem” (Melia dubia), which is locally known as “Malaivembu”. The tree is found in forest plantations in India and is a fast growing tree crop with up to 20 meters height. It produces greater bio-mass in relatively shorter period. As the seed has a tough seed coat, that does not allow water to penetrate easily, the germination becomes rather difficult. By softening the coat of the seed, the germination difficulties can be solved and enable fast germination. This practice presents valuable cost-effective methods for small-scale farmers to raise their own Melia dubia seedlings and establish a plantation independently from seedling suppliers.

Intensive stall-fed system for rearing goats, Tamil Nadu, India

Indoor housing is a convenient practice for raising livestock. If stalls are constructed in an appropriate way, they can fulfil several functions. By avoiding wastage of feed, they allow the keepers to have an enhanced fodder use efficiency. In addition goat droppings can be collected underneath the shed, enabling easily disposal as manure for crops. This hygienic practice keeps the animals healthy, preventing the excessive application of medicine.
Small-scale farmers and agricultural labourers can easily construct such a wooden stall-fed system. The construction materials are locally available and the stalls can be easily constructed with the help of local carpenters and/or skilled labourers. Construction of such a wooden stall can be completed quickly and at a lower cost compared with the construction of usual pucca shed (solid, permanent houses or huts that are made of concrete, clay tiles and/or stones).
This practice describes the construction of a low cost housing system for rearing goats in case of shortage of labor and/or non-availability of sufficient grazing area or absence of grazing area. The practice derives from a farmer-led innovation in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. There, it has been successfully adopted by 16 farmers in the Coimbatore district.

Traditional feeding of cattle with intercropped forage Sorghum, Tamil Nadu, India

Fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is used for feeding animals in the dry lands of India. The forage crop is sown in an intercropping system along with staple crops. The intercropping of the forage sorghum between other crops additionally improves the land use efficiency, providing diversified yields within a specified area of cropping. Eventually, the harvested forage is cut from the intercropped fields and manually fed to the cattle by the farm members.
The present practice builds on the experiences of local people in the Krishnagiri district, Tamil Nadu. It is suitable mainly for small family farms, with small amounts of cattle. In the local language, the associated feeding practice is called “Thattu Koduthal” (hand feeding of fodder for animals). Hand feeding offers the advantage that wastages of forage can be avoided. Cattle prefer the panicles, and often the stems of forage sorghum are not fed along with the panicles. Manual feeding however, allows for the whole sorghum stems to be fed to the cattle.

Soaking Seeds (Seed Priming) to Improve Crop Yields

Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.
This practice explains as well how farmers can improve the nutrient supply to crops at a low-cost and effective way .

Contract Farming Handbook

Published by the 'Competitive African Cotton Initiative' (COMPACI) in collaboration with other partners (GIZ, AISPII etc.), the technology is a powerful tool for linking farmers to buyers in an increasingly concentrated agri-food sector, and buyers to supply sources in ever-more competitive agricultural markets. The purpose of this guide is to provide a practical and process-oriented approach for a sound planning and implementation of contract farming (CF) schemes. This guide has been developed to serve practitioners involved in starting up and managing or supporting the initiation and implementation of contract farming schemes. The guide provides a hands-on and process-oriented approach for the development of contract farming schemes. Following the logic stages of starting up a business, the overall structure is easy to capture. And, while giving orientation for a focused approach, the guide remains flexible leaving the selection of tools and sequencing of activities to the discretion of users according to the reality on the ground. The proposed approaches in this guide are applicable to any type of product and situation provided that users are capable of using it in a flexible way and adapting the tools and recommendations to the specific local situation and the ever-faster changing production and market contexts in developing countries.

Collective Action to Reduce Goat Mortality - A Case Study of interventions supported by PRADAN in District Kandhamal, Odisha, India.

This case study is the result of field visits undertaken by the South Asia Pro Poor Livestock Policy Programme (SA PPLPP) in District Kandhamal, Odisha, India, where PRADAN (Professional Assistance for Development Action) has supported goat based livelihood interventions in five of the fourteen gram panchayats of the Balliguda block. ( Gram Panchayats are local self-governments at the village or small town level in India, and are the foundations of the Panchayati Raj System. Panchayats where re-introduced as institutions of local self-governance in 1992. As of 2002, there were about 265,000 gram panchayats in India.)

These interventions were designed with the twin objectives of increasing household income from goat rearing by reducing mortality and morbidity, improving management and rearing practices and facilitating the establishment of community institutions and processes to ensure sustainability of these interventions.

The case study details the implementation strategy of this innovative community-centric model, with Self Help Groups (SHGs) as the foundation, to facilitate access to preventive health, vaccination services and knowledge sharing on improved rearing and husbandry practices. It also documents the major challenges and learning gained, which further contributed to modifying and strengthening the implementation approach.

Small Ruminant Rearing - Product Markets, Opportunities and Constraints

This report aims to place the economic context of small ruminant rearing within broader policy and institutional frameworks, and studies the value chains of goat and sheep meat and skin, and sheep wool.

The objective of the report is to establish the macro market picture vis-à-vis small ruminant rearers through analysis and documentation of approaches and practices related to market prospects. In addition, the report identifies opportunities for facilitating access of small-holder livestock owners to more remunerative markets.

The report successfully attempts to construct the value chains of three important products of the small ruminant sector - meat, leather and wool. It also documents grass-root initiatives on small ruminant rearing and their impact on the livelihoods of rearers.

Small Ruminant Rearing - Breed Conservation and Genetic Improvement

The report documents approaches, interventions and good practices related to small ruminant breed conservation and improvement in India, and their impact on the livelihoods of smallholder livestock rearers. The documented approaches include promotion of indigenous breeds, traditional systems for sharing small ruminant assets and cross-breeding programmes.

The report also includes a comparative assessment of small ruminant breed populations in the country. In addition, the report compiles information on a range of small ruminant breed improvement projects implemented in tropical developing countries other than India.

Most importantly, the report identifies and describes issues for policy advocacy related to small ruminant breed conservation and improvement with the objective of securing sustainable livelihoods for small ruminant rearers as also facilitating their participation in the expanding market for small ruminants.

Herbal de-worming for lower goat mortality

Baif is an NGO that works across 60,000 villages in 16 states of India, reaching out to over 4.5 million farmers. In BAIF’s programme area in the Dharwad district of India, high mortality among goat kids in the rainy season was reported as a major constraint by goat rearers. Following discussions with goat rearers in three villages’ of the district (Nigadi, Devarhuballi and Benkaiikatti) the high mortality was attributed to nematode infestations in both pregnant does and their kids. Members of the Kuruba community, a traditional pastoral community in the area, were reported to use a locally available herb for regular de-worming of their livestock. In collaboration with goat rearers, BAIF’s research team conducted trials to study the comparative efficacy of this herb with a commercial de-wormer Fenbenzadole.

A study on the comparative efficacy of herbal and chemical de-wormers

SEVA (Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Voluntary Action) is an NGO involved in documenting and disseminating indigenous knowledge and grassroot innovations in Tamil Nadu, India.
In 2008, SEVA initiated a study on the comparative efficacy of herbal and chemical de-wormers on sheep flocks. The cost of the herbal de-wormer is comparable to that of the chemical de-wormer Fenbendazole, however the herbal de-wormer can also be prepared by livestock rearers on their own as the ingredients are easily available around homestead areas unlike the chemical de-wormer which has to be purchased from a chemist.

SMS for Good Shepherding – Providing Information When and Where it is needed

Anthra, a non-profit organization working primarily on issues of livestock development in the wider context of sustainable natural resource use, worked with migratory shepherd communities in Maharashtra, India. Access to information on disease occurrence and remedial measures emerged as a constraint for shepherds on the move. Keeping in mind that many shepherds carried with them mobile phones as they migrated with their sheep in search of grazing, Anthra developed an innovative and simple SMS service to disseminate information regarding current diseases and remedial measures, including herbal and ethno-veterinary medicines that shepherds could easily access. Shepherds wishing to receive this information register their mobile numbers at the Anthra office, which thereafter sends fortnightly updates on probable seasonal diseases, symptoms, remedies and precautions that shepherds can take to prevent the out-break and spread of disease amongst their flocks. Information is sent out in the local language, making it easy for shepherds to understand and share the information among their groups.

Securing Community Tenure Over Common Lands

This good practice is aimed at addressing the growing degradation of common land in India. By controlling the use of communal lands through community participation, discussion and the creation of self-governing rules, many benefits have been noted.

Enriching Community Pastures

This good practice shows how “Protection of Commons” has led to not only increasing the output of grasses and thereby promoting livestock development, but the renewal of hydrology has led to significant increases in acreage as well as production of various crops. This has resulted in enhancement of food security amongst the small farmers.

Community Ownership and Institutional Mechanisms to Develop Common Property Resources and Enhance Livelihoods

This good practice shows that community led development of Common Property Resources through local ownership and institutional mechanisms greatly enhances livelihoods of livestock keepers especially the poor, landless and Below Poverty Line families. The practice helped improve the environment by reducing soil degradation and increasing soil moisture and vegetation.In succession, this resulted into increased biomass in terms of quantity and quality and thus the overall year around fodder situation improved. The improved fodder situation led to more output per animal and subsequently more animal products for home consumption and sales.Overall, it also contributed to an improved nutritional status of village communities.

Building Fodder Security in Rural Areas

This note highlights the importance of engaging members of the community in documenting the wealth of traditional knowledge regarding feed and fodder systems across different agro-ecological regions. This process enhanced their self respect and dignity in terms of their heritage and inspired them to revitalise and reintegrate some of these practices into their ongoing livelihoods strategies. The good practice also focuses on the necessity of developing synergies between scientific and community validation methods regarding nutritive value of traditional species in comparison to improved varieties of grasses and fodder. The similarities in the findings have helped to break the myth regarding the fodder value of traditional species.

Innovations in Common Land Development

Increased availability of fodder biomass – grasses, shrub and tree leaves – is possible through protected commons. This increased availability of biomass has in turn directly resulted in improved livelihoods. This Good Practice reveals how management of village dynamics, building awareness, finding local solutions and building technical acumen can create ownership and equity in Common Property Resource management.

Women Resurrecting Poultry Biodiversity and Livelihoods

A federation of 1800 women across 80 villages resurrected the local Aseel poultry population by building local disease management and feeding strategies, promoting traditional asset sharing to preserve the Aseel biodiversity and lobbying for timely vaccination with government agencies. This Good Practice shows a remarkable reduction in chick mortality from 70% in 1997 to 25% in 2008, a threefold increase in income from poultry, comparing the pre-intervention (1998) and actual situation (2008), the efficacy of a mass vaccination drive reached out to 12,000 birds in 45 villages, the value of indigenous Aseel, the importance of traditional practices with Aseel having major cultural significance and local market demand, and the lack of poultry feed/ scavenging material which led to a shift in cropping systems.

Replicas of Native Chicken in Rural Poultry Production - The Satpuda

More than 40,000 households have benefitted from rearing Satpuda birds, in a span of 9 years. It has not only withstood the Bird Flu outbreak in 2006, but has grown steadily to produce 14,00,000 DOC per annum. It has provided a means of complementary livelihood to marginal farmers and a source of supplementary income to women backyard poultry rearers. Best practices like after sales services in form of free advisory services, knowledge exchange through informal meetings and marketing support has enhanced incomes of the rearers and led to community empowerment as well.

Government-Led Integrated Approach for Delivery of Services to Smallholder Poultry Farmers

This Government initiated good practice showcases how simple cost effective interventions - low cost protein rich feeding, de-worming, vaccination, low cost housing, egg-candling, use of bamboos as feeders and waterers aimed to strengthen household poultry production with adequate extension and support systems through creation of village facilitators (paravets) at village/hamlet level to deliver regular, economically sustainable animal health service within the villages contributed to the improvement of poultry and farm management capabilities of tribal farmers in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh in India.

These interventions facilitated increased health awareness in beneficiaries regarding poultry and have contributed to reducing mortality leading to three fold increase in flock size, with a resultant positive effect on the livelihoods of the rural population, many of whom comprise the poorest communities in these tribal regions.

Pepsee micro-irrigation system

A grassroots innovation that offers most of the advantages of conventional micro-irrigation at a much lower establishment cost.
Pepsee micro-irrigation systems slowly and regularly apply water directly to the root zone of plants through a network of economically designed plastic pipes and low-discharge emitters.
Technically speaking pepsee systems use low density polythene (65–130 microns) tubes which are locally assembled. Being a low pressure system the water source can be an overhead tank or a manually operated water pump to lift water from a shallow water table. Such a system costs less than US$ 40 per hectare for establishment. But the tubes have a short life span of one (or two) year(s). The critical factor is the low entry cost. Pepsee systems thus act as ‘stepping tones’ for poor farmers who are facing water stress but are short of capital and cannot afford to risk relatively large investment in a technology which is new to them, and whose returns are uncertain.

Sunken streambed structure

Excavations in streambeds to provide temporary storage of runoff, increasing water yields from shallow wells for supplementary irrigation.
Dohs are rectangular excavations in seasonal streambeds, which are intended to
capture and hold runoff to enhance groundwater recharge, thus increasing water
for irrigation from nearby shallow wells. They also collect and impound subsurface flow. Dohs are built in semi-arid areas where rainfall is low and seasonal.
The dimension of a typical doh is 1.0–1.5 m deep with variable length (up to 40 m) and width (up to 10 m) depending on streambed section, with an average capacity of 400 m3. The excavated material is deposited along the stream banks as a barrier against siltation from surrounding areas. The slopes of the excavation are gentle so that water flows into it, and excess water out again, carrying silt rather than depositing it.
The technology is used in conjunction with shallow wells (odees), which enable farmers to harvest the increased groundwater for supplementary irrigation of annual crops . In summary, dohs are low cost water recharge alternatives for poorer communities, and in this case study, the extra area brought under production has meant that all families now have access to some water for irrigation.

Rainwater syringe: Low cost technology for rainwater harvesting in coastal areas

Due to saline conditions, drinking and pure water is a major problem in coastal areas. Most of the open wells and tube wells in the coastal areas contain salty water. Rainwater harvesting is a viable option for solving the issue of drinking water. Construction of rainwater overhead tanks is a costly affair and marginal farmers cannot afford it. Moreover the tank has limited capacity for storing water.

The method developed by Mr Antoji from Kerala, India is a cost effective method for harvesting rainwater in costal areas. Rainwater is collected from the roof tops of houses and stored in a pressure tank in the ground and with the help of PVC pipes, water is lowered below sea level (up to 16 - 24 feet). The water is retained in the underground water column and this harvested water can be subsequently collected by a simple piston pump or motor by constructing a tube well in the vicinity before mixing with saline water. 500 to 2500 litres of water can be drawn daily. The water thus harvested is used both for drinking and for minor irrigation. He has installed more than 150 tanks in different parts of Kerala including in his home village of ‘chellanum’ in Ernamkulam district. He started the construction of tanks in wide scale from 2000 onwards. The cost of construction or total unit cost is Rs 22,000/- or 500 US $ which includes cost of pump, motor, PVC pipes, labour charges etc. The clients are satisfied with the quality of harvested water. Sample of water collected from the tanks has been tested scientifically in laboratory and approved for drinking.

Sylvi-pastoral and hedgerow systems in integrated farming systems, India

Low income farmers in semi-arid tropics, such as in the low rainfall areas of southern India traditionally combine different activities to diversify livelihoods so as to reduce the impact of natural hazards like drought. The Acacia Leucophoea and Cenchrus Ciliaris sylvi-pastoral system is an integrated sylvi-pastoral farming system that provides adequate fodder for goats and sheep, along with firewood to meet household requirements. Annual crops like maize and sorghum can be grown between the tree rows, which helps to protect the soil, reduce soil erosion and diversify livelihoods. Forage grasses are planted between the tree rows to increase total fodder supply to animals. Trees also act as windbreaks.

On-farm composting methods: Traditional methods (anaerobic decomposition)

Growing concerns relating to land degradation, threat to eco-systems from over and inappropriate use of inorganic fertilizers, atmospheric pollution, soil health, soil biodiversity and sanitation have rekindled the global interest in organic recycling practices like composting. The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health – thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. The following technology is part from FAO's publication on-farm composting methods.

On-farm composting methods: large scale passive aeration

Growing concerns relating to land degradation, threat to eco-systems from over and inappropriate use of inorganic fertilizers, atmospheric pollution, soil health, soil biodiversity and sanitation have rekindled the global interest in organic recycling practices like composting. The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health – thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. The following technology is part from FAO's publication on-farm composting.

Rapid composting methods: Vermicomposting

The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health, thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. While traditional composting procedures take as long as 4-8 months to produce finished compost, rapid composting methods offer possibilities for reducing the processing period up to three weeks.

Participatory approaches: Client-oriented breeding of rice for rainfed, medium and low lands of Easter India

Poor farmers in marginal areas have benefited little from high yielding, "green revolution" varieties that have transformed the productivity of more favourable areas. In the states of northeastern India, farmers who cultivate upland rice on low-fertility, sloping soils continue to grow low yielding landraces that are susceptible to diseases and pests. More efficient plant breeding that is highly client oriented provided a rapid, cost effective solution to these problems by developing new upland rice varieties superior to the landraces.

Management strategies to optimise production of and access to Self Recruiting Species (SRS)

Aquatic animals that can be harvested sustainably from a farmer managed system without regular stocking are referred to as self recruiting species (SRS). A range of indigenous and introduced fish species; as well as molluscs, crustacea and amphibians are inevitably present in many rural aquaculture systems, even where attempts have been made to eradicate them. SRS resource systems operate at the interface of capture fisheries and aquaculture, involving active management and private ownership of animals during all or part of their life cycle, but remaining closely linked to the wider, natural aquatic ecosystem. Active management of wild aquatic animals on farms serves not only to increase their availability for harvest, but to conserve the natural aquatic biodiversity of rice based farming landscapes.The technology characterizes the role of self-recruiting species in different aquaculture systems, and offers management approaches that enhance the production of and access to such resources by the poor.

Management of self-recruiting species in aquaculture

In farmer-managed aquatic systems, poor people do not always have the resources to stock ponds with different fish species. Furthermore, in the dry season, water bodies dry out and access to food sources becomes limited. Self-recruiting species (SRS) are animals that do not require repeated stocking in farmer-managed systems and include both indigenous and exotic species. Management strategies for the maintenance and enhancement of SRS include: keeping of breeding stock, re-stocking of collected juveniles, and screening of pond entrances. These strategies help increase the yield of SRS, without extra financial inputs. This makes them particularly important for poor communities, especially during the dry season when access to other waterbodies is limited.

Integration of aquaculture into the farming systems, India

The development and uptake of recommendations for the integration of fish into smallholder rain-fed farming systems would benefit from farmer participation in the process. Trials in eastern India with small groups within communities demonstrated strong interest in aquaculture, especially in the use of under-utilised community seasonal ponds. The adoption of group-based aquaculture proved significant, with 57% of all farm groups within the area conducting managed aquaculture by the end of the project.

Improved utilization of urban waste, Hubli-Dharwad City Region, Karnataka, India

Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be a valuable fertilizer for peri-urban farmers in India. An integrated approach to urban waste management, currently absent, is needed to improve its use, to include segregation of waste materials (removal of plastic and glass), thereby halting the decline in quality, and its management and marketing in an environmentally sustainable way. The addition of night soil would improve the nutrient content of MSW. There is a range of options that could be considered to maintain access to MSW by near-urban farmers, including subsidizing composts produced by the private sector, producing a range of composts at different prices and maintaining access for both farmers and the private sector.

Decision making tool: checklist for animal nutrition studies

During a series of DFID Livestock Production Programme (LPP) workshops on smallstock it became apparent there was a need to improve the effectiveness of nutritional studies designed to support the contribution of smallstock to the well-being of resource-poor farmers and communities in developing countries. At the 4th LPP workshop on small stock held in Masaka, Uganda the delegates identified the need to produce a precise and easy-to-use aide memoir, or checklist.

This checklist, 'A decision-making checklist for animal nutrition studies in livestock is intended to help researchers at the planning stage of a nutrition experiment or feeding trial with farm livestock, especially ruminants.

Potential yield of South Asian small reservoir fisheries

Lack of assessment methodology for culture-based fisheries has been identified as a major problem in the development of fisheries. The optimal stocking density, size at harvesting and fishing mortality are interrelated. Overfishing is equivalent to understocking, and overstocking is equivalent to underfishing. This model of quantitative population dynamics for culture-based fisheries increases long-term fish production & harvesting efficiency through optimizing stock and harvesting regimes. It is useful even in situations where data is insufficient for a quantitative assessment.

Participatory varietal selection: Improved varieties of chickpea for rainfed conditions in Western India (ICCV 88202 and ICCV 2)

The centralised plant breeding techniques of the green revolution have yielded good results in the more favourable agricultural environments. However, most low-resource farmers in marginal areas have not benefited from these varieties. As an alternative to centralised breeding, farmer participatory approaches using participatory varietal selection (PVS) and participatory plant breeding (PPB) can be used. In PPB, farmers are actively involved in the breeding process, from setting goals to selecting variable, early generation material. In PVS, farmers are given a wide range of new cultivars to test for themselves in their own fields.

Participatory varietal selection: improved varieties of blackgram for rainfed conditions in western India (IU8-6)

The centralised plant breeding techniques of the green revolution have yielded good results in the more favourable agricultural environments. However, most low-resource farmers in marginal areas have not benefited from these varieties. As an alternative to centralised breeding, farmer participatory approaches using participatory varietal selection (PVS) and participatory plant breeding (PPB) can be used. In PPB, farmers are actively involved in the breeding process, from setting goals to selecting variable, early generation material. In PVS, farmers are given a wide range of new cultivars to test for themselves in their own fields. This technology describes a case study with blackgram.

Storage and preservation of wet cassava

Highest grades of cassava starch are processed from freshly extracted starch. In many cassava processing factories, extracted starch is stored in tanks under wet conditions during the peak harvesting period (2-5 months). Long-term storage of cassava starch under wet conditions results in adverse quality changes which reduce the grade and sale price of the resultant dry starch. The simple technology described here was able to maintain the quality of cassava starch during storage.

Participatory varietal selection: improved maize for western India (ZM-421)

The centralised plant breeding techniques of the green revolution have yielded good results in the more favourable agricultural environments. However, most low-resource farmers in marginal areas have not benefited from these varieties. As an alternative to centralised breeding, farmer participatory approaches using participatory varietal selection (PVS) and participatory plant breeding (PPB) can be used. In PPB, farmers are actively involved in the breeding process, from setting goals to selecting variable, early generation material. In PVS, farmers are given a wide range of new cultivars to test for themselves in their own fields.

Participatory varietal selection: rice in eastern India (Judi 578, Sugandha-1, Barkhe 3010)

Using participatory plant breeding, poor and marginal farmers in eastern India who previously grew old and low yielding landraces produced several new varieties of upland rice. Self-help groups produced truthful seed of these rice varieties, with production rising from 39 t in 2002-03 to 81 t in 2003-04 and was expected to be nearly 300 t of certified seed in 2005-06. Foundation and breeder seeds were also produced in 2005. Demand for the seed of upland rice varieties was very great at about 690 t. Farmers adopted the new varieties on 8 to 63% of the upland areas, improving the food security of households from an average of 7 months to 10 months. The average rice selling ability of a household improved from 34 kg to 80 kg per year. Nearly 80% households reported more than 10% improvement in their income after growing the new varieties.

Participatory approaches: Client-oriented breeding of maize for western India

The centralised plant breeding techniques of the green revolution have yielded good results in the more favourable agricultural environments. However, most low-resource farmers in marginal areas have not benefited from these varieties. As an alternative to centralised breeding, farmer participatory approaches using participatory varietal selection (PVS) and participatory plant breeding (PPB) can be used. In PPB, farmers are actively involved in the breeding process, from setting goals to selecting variable, early generation material. Moreover, with PVS, farmers are given a wide range of new cultivars to test for themselves in their own fields.

Participatory approaches: Soaking seeds (seed priming) to improve crop yields

Crop establishment is often poor in the semiarid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) in rice, India and Nepal

Drought resistance in rice is physiologically and genetically complex, and there are a number of traits which are thought to contribute to drought resistance mechanisms. Drought-related traits are influenced by several or many genetic loci. Molecular linkage maps allow identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Corresponding molecular markers can be used for selection in breeding to improve varieties for drought resistance. A molecular linkage map of the Bala x Azucena F6 population with 215 loci was produced and QTLs for blast resistance were mapped. Kalinga III was modified for root growth QTLs and aroma. Segregating lines were produced and approximately 100 seed from 59 lines were given to breeders in India and Nepal.

Seed priming to improve stand establishment and yield in maize

Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.

Seed priming to improve stand establishment and yield in finger millet, India

Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields.

Trainer’s guide to controlling blowfly infestation of traditionally processed fish

Blowfly infestation of traditionally processed fish is a serious problem that results in significant physical and economic losses and the unregulated use of inappropriate and hazardous insecticides by fish processors in some developing countries. The manual provides guidance on the biology of blowfly infestation and its control. Emphasis is placed on the recently developed systems based approach to controlling infestation which engages the fish processor in identifying those steps in the process where infestation occurs and selecting appropriate control measures.

Participatory crop improvement in salt-affected areas of Patala District in Punjab State, India

Farmers' participatory varietal evaluation of wheat and rice was conducted for three consecutive years from 1999 to 2002, in the Punjab, India. Farmers adopted new varieties that better met their needs and enabled them to break their monoculture dependence. They also made use of seed priming and zero tillage, a technology with which they were not familiar, to improve yields and reduce costs.

Fishery management: Length frequency distribution analysis (LFDA) and catch effort data analysis (CEDA) software

Length Frequency Distribution Analysis (LFDA) and Catch and Effort Data Analysis (CEDA) are software packages with analytical tools to guide and assist stock assessment and develop fisheries management policies in developing countries. The outputs of LFDA include estimates of growth and mortality and precautionary management advice. CEDA analyses catch and effort data to provide estimates of current and unexploited stock biomass, as well as other parameters of fish population dynamics. Results provide managers with estimates of the potential yield of fish stocks, taking account of uncertainty and variable recruitment. The software packages are available in a Windows-standard user-interface.

Adaptive co-management: Improved management of fisheries resources

In many developing countries, centralised management of small-scale fisheries has not been able to ensure the sustainable management of fisheries resources on which so many depend. Often this is because information to support management decision-making is either not available or, being provided in a top-down manner that may be detached from resource users and their needs, fails to account for local complexities and the uncertainties they create. Depending on the local conditions of policies devolution and governance structures, co-management has proven to be a successful approach that can lead ultimately to increased benefits for those dependent on fishery. However, it is not possible to identify a "one size fits all" co-management arrangement that will provide successful outcomes in all cases. This report describes how successful co-management arrangements can be created to support the conditions and processes most likely to result in successful local management.

Participatory Varietal Selection: Short duration legume crops for rainfed rabi in India and Nepal

Rice fallows offer a significant potential for legume cultivation in South Asia. A pilot study showed how a combination of short-duration crops, early sowing, minimal tillage and seed priming was effective in enabling farmers to grow a rainfed rabi crop of legumes or cereals. Further work addressed the constraints identified in the pilot and scaled up the preliminary research outputs in Orissa, West Bengal, Jharkand, Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh states (India) and Dhanusa, Jhapa, Kapilvastu, Morang, Saptari and Siraha districts (Nepal).

ParFish Toolkit: A participatory fisheries stock assessment approach

Stock assessments are an important component for managing fisheries. ParFish is a stock assessment methodology and computer software package that supports data-poor small-scale fisheries. The approach can be applied with limited resources and involves the fishing communities in setting management objectives, data collection and participative management planning.

Management guidelines for Asian floodplain river fisheries

These guidelines are based on research on Asian river systems funded by the United Kingdom Government's Department for International Development. They deal with five basic questions with regard to floodplain fishery resources: Why manage? What to manage? Who should manage? How to manage? and Steps to successful management. They also provide checklists of the potential roles of national, catchment-level and local-level stakeholders in the management process.

Restocking Pastoralists: A manual of best practice

Prior research has demonstrated that restocking has had little long-term impact on the lives and livelihood of poor pastoralists. Given the forces of change impacting pastoralist communities, restocking projects need to account for shifting community values, aspirations, norms and behaviour regarding livestock-keeping. The objective of this study was to develop best practice guidelines and tools to enable projects to increase positive outcomes and enhance the impact of restocking as a means of poverty alleviation.

Small-scale starch extraction: Hydrocyclone for improved process efficiency

Starch production from root crops is a long established industry that has seen little development in recent years. It has been estimated that 3 million tonnes of starch are produced annually in developing countries, half of which is produced from cassava. This represents a major market for small-scale root crop growers. By using static centrifuges (hydrocyclones), water used in starch extraction can be reduced by 50%. Pollution of waste water is also reduced.

Sustainable impact generation and technology promotion to manage Bemisia Tabaci and tomato leaf curl Virus Disease in India

In India, tomato is both a high value crop, often exported to the Middle East, and an important subsistence vegetable grown mainly by women. Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) and its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), are two of the most serious constraints to tomato production in India. When populations of B. tabaci are high, 90 – 100% of plants can become infected resulting in a yield loss of 40 – 100%. Farmers consider these problems to be of “burning” importance and they have attempted to manage them with the only tool available to them – intensive and widespread in increasingly unsuccessful use of insecticides in attempts to control B. tabaci and ToLCV, with associated risks both to their health and the environment.Development, promotion and uptake of IPM technologies to combat tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) and its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, two of the most serious constraints to tomato production in India, including open pollinated tomato varieties and hybrids resistant to all strains of the virus including those transmitted by the B biotype of B. tabaci.

Crop protection: Integrated management of fruit flies in India and Pakistan

Fruit flies are a major constraint to the production and export of fruit and vegetables in South Asia. Two techniques were developed: Bait Application Technique (BAT), in which food baits are mixed with a small amount of insecticide to attract and kill adults; and Male Annihilation Technique (MAT), in which synthetic parapheromones are mixed with insecticide, applied to a suitable substrate to allow slow release, and used to selectively attract and kill male flies. Extensive work was carried out to optimize both the construction and composition of traps and lures, and the conditions and environments under which these are best deployed.

Fisheries stock assessment using the FMSP stock assessment tool and a simple guide to writing a management plan

Stock assessment tools and fishery management guidelines were synthesised into a framework guide. The guide assists fisheries managers in using FMSP stock assessment tools. It describes a process for writing and implementing a fishery management plan and shows how stock assessment tools can support fishery managers in designing their management plans and in managing the fishery.

Charka oven for silk reeling industry, Asia

A charka is the simplest mechanism for silk reeling, in which both the cooking and reeling operations are carried out in the same basin. No electricity is required to run the charka. The following technology from FAO's publication Asia Industrial and Institutional Stove Compendium decribes how to use a charka stove for silk reeling

Bamboo splitting and slivering unit, China, India

Bamboo splits and slivers are longitudinal sections of a bamboo pole (culm). They are the primary materials used for weaving a wide range of products. On a small scale they may be used for handicraft items and objects of daily use. On a large scale, one of the most useful products they can be woven into is the mats that are used to produce bamboo matboard. Often the splitting and slivering unit is established with very close linkages to the matboard factories and weaving facilities and weaving staff may be included in the unit. The unit offers consequently employment opportunities for unskilled, semi-skilled and technically trained personnel for its operation and management. Furthermore, establishing new plantations will benefit the environment and substituting bamboo for wood in products will help conserve natural forests.

Bamboo treadle pump, India

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. The following technology describes how to use Bamboo as a material for treadle pump instead of steel.

Rattan pole steam bending, Philipines

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. The following paragraph technology the advantages of using the steam-bending technique instead of the blowtorch.

Village bamboo preservation unit, India

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. Therefore, preserving bamboo extends its life and maintains its quality. Bamboo culms are a natural material and will decay with time. They are also susceptible to insect and fungal attack. Although, many methods of preserving bamboos exist, they can be divided into two main categories: non-pressure methods and pressurised methods.

Bamboo in sericulture: a case study from India

Traditionally, bamboo equipment has been used in sericulture. Baskets for gathering mulberry leaves, trays for feeding leaving to larvae, mountages for production of cocoons, trays for cocoon storage, stifling baskets for steaming of cocoons and some woven mats are the main uses of bamboo in sericulture. The present study is targeted to find out quantities of bamboo used, their sources, employment generation, economics and problems in the whole chain from bamboo resource to use of equipment in silk production

Production of bamboo mat board, India

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan- INBAR priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. Therefore, bamboo mat board, a plywood-like wooden board made from layers of woven bamboo mats that have been pressed together, has enormous income generating potential for the rural poor and particularly for women, who make up the vast majority of weavers. The following technology describes how to produce bamboo mat board.

Bamboo match sticks production, India

Wood is the major raw material for manufacturing match sticks. However, the match industry has been dependent on only few wood species for making match splints and these species are now in short supply. Therefore Bamboo, one of the fasters growing plants, is a sustainable raw material sources for manufacturing match sticks. The main advantages of using bamboo for match sticks production are: (a) Reduction in the use of timber (b) Being renewable with short rotation period, bamboo is a sustainable raw material resource for making match sticks. (c) Growing bamboo will help reduce soil erosion and thereby help enhance productivity of adjoining agricultural lands.

Local tools and equipment technologies for processing bamboo and rattan, Asia

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. Following is an overview of simple, traditional technologies and tools for processing and finishing of bamboo and rattan products.

Fodder management: hay and silage making

Hay-making is the most important method of preserving forage in many countries, including tropical ones. Silage-making is highly developed in temperate countries, especially in Europe, and goes with intensification. In tropical countries, plant growth coincides with the rainy season, which sometimes makes hay-making difficult. The objective of this technology is to preserve forage resources for the dry season (hot countries) or for winter (temperate countries) in order to ensure continuous regular feed for livestock, either to sustain growth, fattening or milk production, or to continue production in difficult periods when market prices are highest.

Water management in mountain: Kuhl irrigation, India

In mountain areas, water continues to be the scarce commodity not only for irrigation but even for drinking and other domestic uses. This difficulty has been experienced very frequently, inspite of the fact that important rivers namely Sutlez, Beas, Ravi and their tributaries originate from these hills. The existing resources are further declining due to heavy biotic pressure and lack of management of existing resources. Most of our Agricultural/Horticultural activities are carried on under rainfed conditions and this require proper management of available water to be conserved for dry periods.

In the hill region, the scope of boring tubewells, canals and even lift irrigation is limited, such facilities are confined to the low laying areas. Therefore, the most common source of irrigation remains the small water channels locally called Kuhls which intact accounts for 85.83 per cent of the total area under irrigation in hills. Providing an infrastructure that allows water harvesting and distribution is important to help farmers maintaining a sustainable crop production and increase their resilience against risks derived from water shortage. Ensuring adequate crop yield through irrigation is a very important component of this particular agro system.