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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
FAO's mandate
Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO's efforts - to make sure people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.
FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy.

Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO)
El mandato de la FAO
Alcanzar la seguridad alimentaria para todos, y asegurar que las personas tengan acceso regular a alimentos de buena calidad que les permitan llevar una vida activa y saludable, es la esencia de las actividades de la FAO.El mandato de la FAO consiste en mejorar la nutrición, aumentar la productividad agrícola, elevar el nivel de vida de la población rural y contribuir al crecimiento de la economía mundial.

Organization des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture
Le mandat de la FAO
Atteindre la sécurité alimentaire pour tous est au coeur des efforts de la FAO - veiller à ce que les êtres humains aient un accès régulier à une nourriture de bonne qualité qui leur permette de mener une vie saine et active.
Le mandat de la FAO consiste à améliorer les niveaux de nutrition, la productivité agricole et la qualité de vie des populations rurales et contribuer à l’essor de l’économie mondiale.


Technologies from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)


Improved rainwater harvesting for fodder shrub production and livestock grazing: the Vallerani micro-catchment system in the Badia of Jordan

The Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region is characterized by a wide variability in rainfall and temperature. In these areas, evapotranspiration largely exceeds the amount of rainfall, leading to droughts with low forage production and water availability. The concurrent increase in human population with the growing demand for meat has led to increased grazing pressures on rangelands and the exhaustion of their potential productivity. The Badia in Jordan constitutes the largest part of the country. It encompasses approximately 72 thousand square kilometers, corresponding to 81 % of the total area of the country. Increased grazing pressure and cultivation of traditional and fragile grazing lands has led to severe degradation of the Badia rangelands. Since the main limiting factors to growth of plants in the Badia are low precipitation, and poor soil quality, the little precipitation water can be collected by establishing micro catchments on the rangelands. The Vallerani System is an intervention strategy for soil regeneration that integrates technology, traditional techniques and the application of good cultural practices adapted to the local reality, to restore big surfaces of degraded arid and semi-arid rangelands. Its application allows pasture improvement, reforestation and the establishment of agro-forestry sites, thus also enhancing the socio-economic development of the local communities affected. This practice explains the Vallerani System and highlights its benefits and limitations. The practical implementation of the system is described on the basis of an example of the Badia rangeland rehabilitation project, implemented by ICARDA within the first decade of the new millenium.

How to process the raw beeswax into value added products

Beeswax is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. The worker bees produce wax to use it for comb structural stability, to form cells for honey-storage and larval and pupal comfort and protection within the bee hive. Beeswax offers the opportunity to the beekeeper to generate extra income from the extraction and processing of the wax into added value products. This technology explains how process the bee wax into added value products. It also includes some indications for buying beeswax and storing it and some information about the composition of wax.

Supplemental irrigation for improved water use efficiency and productivity of wheat in rain fed agriculture, Morocco

Climate Change has had negative effects on the water availability for agriculture in Morocco within the last few decades. Generally, the amount of rainfall declined while at the same time temperatures increased, putting pressure on water supplies for agriculture. Throughout the Central and West Asia and North Africa region (CWANA) fluctuations and reductions in annual rainfall are provoking frequent droughts. But, not only climatic factors led to a more severe water scarcity, also the increased demand of available water for municipal and industrial purposes, has resulted in perpetually decreasing allocations for water in agriculture. However, a large part of the agricultural water use in Morocco is reserved for irrigated agriculture purposes. 70% of the total cropping area in Morocco is used for cereals, amounting to a total of about 5 million hectares. More than half of the area is used for the production of wheat as the main cereal crop, most of it bread wheat varieties. The growing season consists of up to 160 days of cultivation between November and June, depending on the date of planting (usually between November and January). During these months, most of the precipitation needed for wheat production occurs. Thus, wheat crops usually do not suffer from moisture deficits before the month of March. However, rainfall rates usually drop in early spring (March-April) and most of the stored soil moisture is lost through evapotranspiration (ET). This is when a stage of increased soil moisture deficit begins. The uneven distribution of rainfall causes that the crop suffers from water deficit in later stages of growth, leading to reduced production due to terminal moisture stress. This phenomenon not only occurs in Morocco, but throughout the entire CWANA region. Gemerally, the actual productivity of rain fed systems throughout the region remains below the potential rain fed productivity. This practice presents a way to increase the efficiency of water use by supplemental irrigation (SI) in rain fed wheat production in Morocco. Emphasize is given to the different crop growth stages of wheat and the approach of supplemental irrigation (SI). The different stages of wheat growth are explained, outlining the most appropriate approach of SI. When, how and how long should be supplemental irrigation applied to ensure a higher yield for wheat in a rain fed system in Morocco? The practice aims at answering these principal questions, next to an explanation of the basic concept of supplemental irrigation. The practice has been tested and validated by a research campaign, conducted within the project: “Community-Based Optimization of the Management of Scarce Water Resources in Agriculture - Improving water and land productivities in rain fed systems in CWANA”. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) conducted various on-farm trials in the Tadla region of Morocco for the identification of the best approach of supplemental irrigation for the production of the major crops.

Raised beds for improving crop water productivity and water efficiency in irrigated dryland agriculture, Egypt

Egypt has been suffering from severe drought and is going to face an even stronger scarcity of water resources used for agricultural production. Nowadays, 80% of the available water in Egypt is provided to the agricultural sector. Within the prospect of ongoing horizontal and vertical expansion of irrigated agriculture in Egypt and the challenges faced by dry climatic conditions, the focus should ly on the improvement of the efficincy of water use in irrigated agriculture. The benefits of each drop applied could be maximised by adopting appropriate irrgation scheduling and adapted irrgation practices. This practice shows the raised-bed technology for improving water use efficiency and increase crop water productivity in the context of irrgated agriculture in Egypt. It has been tested and validated within a research project between 2004-2008 with winter and summer crops (wheat, berseem & maize, cotton). The application of this technique with the main winter crops has shown that up to 25% of water could be saved, while crop production increased by 10%. Net benefits increased by 40% in the studied governorates in Egypt, and additionally, it reduced variable costs by 30%. Thus, it enhances the efficiency of water use, while at the same time increasing farm income, especially beneficial to poor farm households. Additionally, it is a simple practice that is easy to implement by farmers.

How to collect the raw wax from the hive

Beeswax is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. The wax is formed into "scales" by eight wax-producing glands in the abdomen of worker bees. The worker bees collect and use it to build combs and to form cells for honey-storage. The eggs, larvae and pupae also develop in the wax cells into adult bees. Bees wax offers the opportunity to the beekeeper to generate extra income from the extraction and processing of the wax. This technology explains how to collect bees wax from the hive.

How to process raw honeybee pollen into food for humans

Pollen is one of the products of the beehive that the beekeeper can collect to increase his/her income from beekeeping. Pollen is often called the "super food". High performance athletes are quoted as eating pollen because of its high energetic power. Each pollen grain carries a variety of vitamins, proteins and minerals, making pollen a very important source of nutrients for us. Pollen also contains the 22 essential amino acids that the human body needs every day. This technology explains how to process raw pollen into ready food for humans.

How to collect raw honeybee pollen from the hive

Pollen is collected by the honeybees from the anthers of flowers while they visit them. Pollen is stored in the pollen baskets on the posterior legs of the bees and brought to the hive. To make the pollen stick together, the bees add some saliva and nectar. In the hive, it is stored in the honey combs, and used as food for the bees. Bee pollen is the primary source of protein for the hive. Pollen pellets can be harvested as food for humans because of their rich content in vitamins, proteins and minerals. This technology explains how to collect raw pollen from movable frame hives.

Rice-Fish Culture System (RFC)

Rice-Fish Culture System is an aquaculture system that integrates growing fish in flooded paddy fields. In general, RFC systems could include not only fin-fish but also other aquatic animals. Rice-fish farming is practiced in many countries around the world, particularly in Asia and has great potential in countries with vast areas of irrigated rice fields. This practice shows the main topics to keep in mind for developing a good Rice-fish system and the application of low cost technology for the production of fish in irrigated rice fields.

How to collect raw propolis from the hive

Propolis or “bee glue” is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds and plant resins. Bees collect propolis to use it in the hive as a building material and also to protect the colony against diseases. The value of propolis as an antimicrobial and anti-viral agent has been proven in many laboratory tests over many years. Propolis therefore offers the opportunity for beekeeper to generate extra income from the extraction and processing of propolis and to use propolis for improved health and wellbeing. This technology explains how to collect propolis from the hive.

How to process raw propolis into propolis extracts

Propolis or “bee glue” is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds and plant resins. Propolis is used by the bees in the hive for its antimicrobial and anti-viral properties. Humans can also benefit from these properties of propolis. Because of its healing power, propolis becomes a very useful (and cheap) tool for the treatment and prevention of many health problems in humans and other animals like, for example, cattle, dogs, cats or birds. Propolis can be used raw or in its extracted form. This technology explains how to process raw propolis into proplis extracts (alcohol, water and oil extracts).