Rice

This category contains 33 resources

Multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice in the Philippines. Cost benefit analysis based on field testing of some lines of Green Super Rice

This technology describes the testing of multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice (GSR) varieties in the Philippines. The benefits and constraints compared to local varieties are shown in a cost-benefit analysis.

Increasing flexibility in crop production through DAPOG nursery to reduce the impact of droughts and floods in Cambodia

Cambodia is highly vulnerable to natural hazards such as droughts and floods, which annually occur and often significantly affect the agricultural sector as crops are damaged or destroyed. To reduce these adverse impacts flexibility in crop production is essential. Adopting the practice of Dapog nursery has helped to increase farmers’ flexibility in crop production and has reduced losses in both wet and dry conditions. The Dapog nursery can be constructed on various surfaces, such as in the fields, on small portions of land, or even on concrete floors as long as there is a reliable water source nearby. It allows seedlings to grow quickly in a relatively small space. Furthermore, the strength of young seedlings (10 to 14 days old) is improved. Consequently, they suffer less from the transplanting shock and are more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses like pests, floods, droughts and storms. This method takes less time to construct than conventional seedbeds and reduces the amount of labor needed as the pulling of seedlings is eliminated. As a result and due to the flexibility of this method, the Dapog nursery proves to be a good practice to potentially increase yield and additional income as well as to contribute to people’s food and nutrition security.

Aerobic Rice

This practice explains where and how to manage ”aerobic rice”. Aerobic rice is a production system in which rice is grown under nonflooded, nonpuddled, and nonsaturated soil conditions. Because aerobic rice needs less water at the field level than conventional lowland rice, the system is targeted at relatively water-short irrigated or rainfed lowland environments. Irrigation can be applied through flash-flooding, furrow irrigation (or raised beds), or sprinklers. Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM; www.irri.org/irrc/ssnm) can be used to determine the optimal management of fertilizers. This growing system experiences more weed growth and more species of weeds, therefore there is a need to control weeds. Soil-borne pests and diseases such as nematodes, root aphids, and fungi are known to occur more in aerobic rice than in flooded rice, especially in the tropics. It is recommended to grow aerobic rice in rotation with upland crops suitable in the area.

Rice farming: Saving water through Alternate Wetting Drying (AWD) method

Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) is a water-saving technology that lowland (paddy) rice farmers can apply to reduce their water use in irrigated fields. In AWD, irrigation water is applied to flood the field a certain number of days after the disappearance of ponded water. Hence, the field is alternately flooded and non-flooded. The number of days of non-flooded soil in AWD between irrigations can vary from 1 day to more than 10 days.

Revitalizing rice ratooning to reduce risk and impact during hazard-prone months in the Bicol region, the Philippines

The Philippines, due to its geographical location and physical environment, is among the world’s most disaster-prone countries including floods, typhoons, monsoon storms and drought. The country experiences an average of 20 typhoons yearly. Natural hazards severely affect people’s livelihoods as they trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides, widespread flooding and cause damage to homes, community buildings, communications, infrastructure, and agriculture. Within the Philippines, Bicol is one of the most hazard prone regions and agriculture is regularly among the most effected sectors. Weather impacts cause variations in production and seasonal price fluctuations significantly affect the income of farmers. Climate change will further exacerbate the regions’ exposure to climate–induced risks, which challenges farmers to adapt their farming systems to the different conditions. Timing of planting coupled with complementary practices, like rice ratooning and the use of suitable rice varieties, can enhance resilience of farmers to climate change and extreme weather events in particular in typhoon prone areas. This good practice option can reduce crop production losses during typhoon months and difficulties of seedbed preparation and transplanting during turn-around period.

Rice and Duck farming as means for contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation, in the Bicol region, Philippines

Integrating ducks in rice farming have been proven to increase 20% higher yield with about 50% higher net return. The same cultivation area can be used for not only rice production but also subsidiary products like meat and eggs. At the same time it reduces labour inputs through control of weeds and insects by ducks. Beside its economic benefits this technology is especially environmental friendly. The application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides can be reduced thereby improving soil quality and pest control. The additional benefits of this Good Practice Option are a higher food security to small farming households in times of calamities and on long-term basis the contribution to reduce methane emission. Hence, integration of duck in lowland rice production is recommended as climate adaptation and mitigation option. This technology describes how to implement the rice and duck farming system.

Use of Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties (e.g., NSIC Rc-108 and NSIC Rc-188) to counteract impacts of sea surges and saltwater intrusion, Philippines

The Philippines are among the most disaster prone countries in the world. More than 200 climate-related natural disasters were recorded in the last two decades. Alone in 2011, the country was hit by 33 disasters, claiming 1,430 lives. Agriculture is the sector most affected by tropical cyclones causing a decline in production and productivity which will possibly threaten the country's food security. Due to the climate variability and other environmental changes, rice cultivation especially in the typhoon prone areas are facing some challenges for farmers to adapt to saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. Salinity became one of the major soil problems in many rice-growing areas in the world. About 48 million hectares of land in the humid regions of South and Southeast Asia are technically suited to rice production but remain idle or are grown with poor results due to salinity. Studies show, however, that sustained and profitable production of crops specifically rice on salt-affected soils is possible, if appropriate farm management practices are implemented.

Use of Early-Maturing Rice Variety (EMRV) to reduce typhoon impacts in Bicol Region, Philippines

The Philippines are among the most disaster prone countries in the world. More than 200 climate-related natural disasters were recorded in the last two decades. Alone in 2011 the country was hit by 33 disasters, claiming 1,430 lives. Typhoons trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides, widespread flooding and cause significant destruction and damages. Agriculture is the sector most affected by tropical cyclones causing a decline in production and productivity which will possibly threaten the country's food security. The use of early-maturing rice varieties (EMRV) was tested to improve the production of transplanted rice in typhoon-prone Bicol Region. EMRVs can improve food security, reduce farmers’ vulnerability from adverse climatic events during the months of June to December (wet season cropping), and prevent high production loss due to damages to standing rice crops brought by typhoons.

Fallow Cropping: Garlic after Rice, Philippines

The Philippines, due to its geographical location and physical environment, is among the world’s most disaster prone countries. The country regularly experiences floods, typhoons, monsoon storms and rains, and drought. The country is visited by an average of 20 typhoons yearly. These weather events have serve impacts on the agriculture sector, increasing the need for more resistant, sustainable and efficient production systems. Garlic cropping in the fallow period after rice was identified as a good practice option (GPO) as it can reduce the impacts of climate variability and risks associated with extreme weather events such as droughts, enhance livelihood security by augmenting household incomes, and promote crop diversification. Garlic is a cash crop with a quick return on investment. It requires minimal labor input so that on a small plot, a family household member can provide the labor. Fallow cropping of garlic after rice is thus considered as a GPO that can both increase the ecological (e.g. improved soil quality) and socio-economic (e.g. source of additional income) resilience of farming households, especially in disaster-prone countries like the Philippines.

Zero/Minimum tillage in rice-wheat system in Nepal

Growing of rice and wheat in sequence in Nepal is common, it constitutes the major cropping system in the Terai region of Nepal. The average yields of rice rarely exceed 3 t ha-1 and wheat yields invariably remain within 1–2 t ha-1. These yields are low in comparison with other parts of south Asia where the rice-wheat system is practiced. In general, one of the major difficulties for this system is to plant wheat in marshy or wet lands after rice, as land preparation is very difficult under such conditions. Wet and marshy lands need more time to come to good tilth and thus wheat cannot be planted in time. In this context, zero or minimum tillage practice constitutes a feasible solution with minimum disturbance to the soil by simply placing the seeds in furrows opened or scraped by the tines. Zero-tillage wheat allows for a drastic reduction in tillage intensity, resulting in significant cost savings as well as potential gains in wheat yield through earlier planting of wheat.

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