Lugares con poca capacidad natural productiva requieren estrategias especiales para convertirse en sistemas productivos agropecuarios.
En la zona de Yavi el uso de cultivos locales, el trabajo con abonos compuestos y las prácticas ancestrales permiten aumentar la resiliencia productiva. El objetivo es cuidar de la biodiversidad, diversificar la producción en el predio y utilizar productos biológicos para tratar los cultivos. La utilización de abonos químicos es inadecuada, principalmente por problemas económicos y riesgo de contaminación de las aguas. Por ello, se planteó la estrategia de rescatar tecnologías tradicionales y transferir tecnología con el enfoque agroecológico, que priorice la utilización y reciclado de materiales locales y el uso de estrategias para potenciar el control biológico.
En la zona de Humahuaca la comunidad organiza la construcción y mantenimiento de infraestructura productiva, la bio-diversificación de la producción y la fertilización orgánica como estrategias para mejorar la situación agropecuaria y la situación social local.
Fortalezas de estas tecnologías son la recuperación de la identidad y capacidad de autogestión comunitaria y la recuperación de tecnologías ancestrales adecuadas para los ambientes andinos. Impactos positivos de la estrategia son: mejoramiento de la cobertura del suelo, aumento de la materia orgánica, mejoramiento de la calidad del agua y disponibilidad de nutrientes, promoción de especies y variedades vegetales, y diversificación del uso de la tierra.
El establecimiento de bancos forrajes en el área rural de Pasto tiene importancia fundamental, dado que la alimentación de animales y productividad de las fincas tiene un alto costo, que se busca reducir junto con mejorar la productividad. Los bancos forrajeros son cultivos intensivos para la producción de grandes volúmenes de tallos y hojas para alimentación animal. Los objetivos de los bancos forrajeros en esta práctica son: producir forrajes frescos en la finca para alimentación de animales de manera sostenible; mejorar de la cobertura y estructura del suelo; y aumentar la materia orgánica y disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo. La práctica se puede realizar en tierras de cultivos anuales, y se rotan con cultivos para la producción de forraje de corte usados para la alimentación de cuyes. Posterior a la cosecha del cultivo de papas se establece el cultivo forrajero para corte. La fertilización se realiza cada dos cortes con abono orgánico. El primer corte se inicia al cuarto mes desde su establecimiento y el pasto se mantiene por aproximadamente tres años.
This case study is the result of field visits undertaken by the South Asia Pro Poor Livestock Policy Programme (SA PPLPP) in District Kandhamal, Odisha, India, where PRADAN (Professional Assistance for Development Action) has supported goat based livelihood interventions in five of the fourteen gram panchayats of the Balliguda block. ( Gram Panchayats are local self-governments at the village or small town level in India, and are the foundations of the Panchayati Raj System. Panchayats where re-introduced as institutions of local self-governance in 1992. As of 2002, there were about 265,000 gram panchayats in India.)
These interventions were designed with the twin objectives of increasing household income from goat rearing by reducing mortality and morbidity, improving management and rearing practices and facilitating the establishment of community institutions and processes to ensure sustainability of these interventions.
The case study details the implementation strategy of this innovative community-centric model, with Self Help Groups (SHGs) as the foundation, to facilitate access to preventive health, vaccination services and knowledge sharing on improved rearing and husbandry practices. It also documents the major challenges and learning gained, which further contributed to modifying and strengthening the implementation approach.
This report aims to place the economic context of small ruminant rearing within broader policy and institutional frameworks, and studies the value chains of goat and sheep meat and skin, and sheep wool.
The objective of the report is to establish the macro market picture vis-à-vis small ruminant rearers through analysis and documentation of approaches and practices related to market prospects. In addition, the report identifies opportunities for facilitating access of small-holder livestock owners to more remunerative markets.
The report successfully attempts to construct the value chains of three important products of the small ruminant sector - meat, leather and wool. It also documents grass-root initiatives on small ruminant rearing and their impact on the livelihoods of rearers.
The report documents approaches, interventions and good practices related to small ruminant breed conservation and improvement in India, and their impact on the livelihoods of smallholder livestock rearers. The documented approaches include promotion of indigenous breeds, traditional systems for sharing small ruminant assets and cross-breeding programmes.
The report also includes a comparative assessment of small ruminant breed populations in the country. In addition, the report compiles information on a range of small ruminant breed improvement projects implemented in tropical developing countries other than India.
Most importantly, the report identifies and describes issues for policy advocacy related to small ruminant breed conservation and improvement with the objective of securing sustainable livelihoods for small ruminant rearers as also facilitating their participation in the expanding market for small ruminants.
Traditionally poultry production (both broiler and layer) has played an integral part of small farming systems and for food security throughout rural and suburban communities in Saint Lucia. The construction of a concrete floor within an existing 4000 sq. ft. poultry pen as well as the construction of a footbath at the entrance of the pen ensure increased bio-security for the poultry farm. These disease control measures are risk reduction strategies, which will increase the production of healthy stock to be sold at the market, thereby generating income and contributing to people’s livelihoods and food security.
Saint Lucia as an island in the southeast Caribbean basin lies within the hurricane belt. As such, the agriculture sector, among others, is highly affected by the impact of windstorms and hurricanes. In addition, the sector is also facing water shortages during the dry season (variable, but typically from January to April/May), lack of improved forage species for maximizing production and unavailability of improved housing for livestock. The construction of a hurricane-resistant small ruminant housing unit incorporates rain water harvesting and bio-security features, such as the construction of a footbath, a slatted wooden floor and concrete base beneath the pen to facilitate efficient manure handling and disposal. As a result, this technology ensures that small ruminant housing meet adequate construction and safety standards to reduce damage by hurricanes and windstorms and reduce the risk of infection and diseases among animals. Small ruminants are an important livelihood asset of farmers.
Integrating ducks in rice farming have been proven to increase 20% higher yield with about 50% higher net return. The same cultivation area can be used for not only rice production but also subsidiary products like meat and eggs. At the same time it reduces labour inputs through control of weeds and insects by ducks. Beside its economic benefits this technology is especially environmental friendly. The application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides can be reduced thereby improving soil quality and pest control. The additional benefits of this Good Practice Option are a higher food security to small farming households in times of calamities and on long-term basis the contribution to reduce methane emission. Hence, integration of duck in lowland rice production is recommended as climate adaptation and mitigation option.
Baif is an NGO that works across 60,000 villages in 16 states of India, reaching out to over 4.5 million farmers. In BAIF’s programme area in the Dharwad district of India, high mortality among goat kids in the rainy season was reported as a major constraint by goat rearers. Following discussions with goat rearers in three villages’ of the district (Nigadi, Devarhuballi and Benkaiikatti) the high mortality was attributed to nematode infestations in both pregnant does and their kids. Members of the Kuruba community, a traditional pastoral community in the area, were reported to use a locally available herb for regular de-worming of their livestock. In collaboration with goat rearers, BAIF’s research team conducted trials to study the comparative efficacy of this herb with a commercial de-wormer Fenbenzadole.
SEVA (Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Voluntary Action) is an NGO involved in documenting and disseminating indigenous knowledge and grassroot innovations in Tamil Nadu, India.
In 2008, SEVA initiated a study on the comparative efficacy of herbal and chemical de-wormers on sheep flocks. The cost of the herbal de-wormer is comparable to that of the chemical de-wormer Fenbendazole, however the herbal de-wormer can also be prepared by livestock rearers on their own as the ingredients are easily available around homestead areas unlike the chemical de-wormer which has to be purchased from a chemist.