Africa subsahariana

This category contains 296 resources

Evergreen Agriculture: The use of fertilizer trees in maize production in Malawi.

Agroforestry is a set of tools which farmers can use to increase yields, build soil fertility, raise their income, and boost their food security. ICRAF and its partners have worked closely with farmers for decades to promote and develop simultaneous intercropping practices to address the challenges in soil fertility facing smallholder farmers.

As supplementary technology in evergreen agriculture, agroforestry technology will focus on the concept of simultaneous intercropping of proven fertilizer trees in replenishing soil fertility and increasing crop yields. Simultaneous intercropping is an agroforestry technique whereby nitrogen-fixing woody trees are simultaneously grown with annual crops on the same piece of land at the same time. This is done in order to improve soil fertility and increase yields. While the trees are on the land throughout the year, the crops planted at the beginning of the rainy season dominate during the growing season.

Evergreen Agriculture: Conservation Agriculture in maize production in Malawi.

Evergreen Agriculture is a combination of conservation agriculture and agroforestry practices within the same spatial and temporal dimensions. In other circles, evergreen agriculture is referred to as agroforestry based conservation agriculture or Conservation Agriculture With Trees (CAWT). Evergreen agriculture is being tested by ICRAF in conjunction with partners in Malawi and across Africa as the means for enhancing soil fertility, increasing crop productivity and increasing food production.

This section will focus on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture (CA) as applied in maize production in Malawi. Conservation agriculture also improves the soil health and productivity as well as improves the crop production. ICRAF envisages that a combination of these two technologies together with other technologies will improve soil health and improve crop production and finally improves food security in Malawi.

Establishing a tree nursery

At present the need to plant trees on farms is on the increase. It is difficult, however, for smallholders to access – at the right time, in the right quantities and of high quality – the trees that they want to plant. In order to meet present and future demand for planting materials, there is a need to promote on-farm and community tree nurseries. Such nurseries can be owned and managed by individual farmers, by self-help groups, by schools, by churches and/or by a range of other local institutions. They provide income-generating opportunities, act as models for further nursery development, provide seedlings more cheaply to planters, and can raise the particular species that local people are interested in. The practice describes the various steps involved in the establishment of a tree nursery.

Grafting Techniques of Allanblackia spp

This technology describes various stages of propagating Allanblackia species by grafting.

Grafting is a technique widely used in horticulture and forestry for the mass production of selected plants, and is one of the most successful methods for propagating Allanblackia vegetative. The technique involves formation of a union between scions taken from desirable mother trees and rootstocks that are normally young or healthy seedlings established in the nursery.

By grafting, the period between field establishment and when a tree flowers and fruits is generally shorted. This means that farmers can realize revenues more quickly.

Improved Fallows

Natural fallow is land resting from cultivation, usually used for grazing or left to natural vegetation for a long period to restore soil fertility lost from growing crops. Improved fallow is also land resting from cultivation but the vegetation comprises planted and managed species of leguminous trees, shrubs and herbaceous cover crops. These cover crops rapidly replenish soil fertility in one or at most two growing seasons. They shorten the time required to restore soil fertility; they help to improve farmland productivity because the plant vegetation that follows them is superior in quality; and they increase the range of outputs, because the woody fallow species can also produce fuel wood and stakes.

This practice aims to describe how to establish and manage improved fallow as an innovative agroforestry technology that can meet the different needs of the farmers
and improve the natural resource base. It is intended to serve as a useful guide for extension staff, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations
and farmers.

Amélioration du stockage du maïs (Zea mays L.) dans des greniers en présence de plantes biopesticides de Lippia multiflora (thé de savane) et Hyptis suaveolens (sosso tanan) en Côte d’Ivoire

La protection du maïs stocké à l’aide de produits alternatifs biodégradables et non nocifs à la santé et à l’environnement mérite d’être valorisée afin de limiter la dépendance des producteurs à l’utilisation des pesticides chimiques pour la protection des stocks de maïs. Une combinaison de feuilles de Lippia multiflora (thé de savane) et Hyptis suaveolens (sosso tanan, en langue malinké qui signifie « totem des moustiques ») a été utilisée pour son effet protecteur sur le maïs en épis et en grains stocké dans des greniers améliorés. Le but est de proroger la durée de conservation du maïs à l’aide de biopesticides dans un abri hermétiquement fermé, protégeant ainsi le maïs des nuisibles et des intempéries. La technologie suivante explique en détail les principes de la technique de stockage du maïs à l’aide des plantes biopesticides Lippia multiflora (thé de savane) et Hyptis suaveolens (sosso tanan) et fournit un guide, étape par étape, sur la construction d’un grenier amélioré pour le stockage du maïs.

Chalkbrood and Stonebrood

Chalkbrood and Stonebrood are fungal diseases of honeybees (Apis mellifera) that occur worldwide. Chalkbrood is caused by Ascosphaera apis and affects the brood.
Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus and affects both the brood and adult bees.

This practice describes the causes and symptoms of Chalkbrood and Stonebrood, how they spread, how to address and prevent these diseases.

Método del cultivo hidropónico simple no circulante para vegetales

El presente documento es una traducción de la versión original en inglés ( El cultivo hidropónico es el método más común de cultivo de plantas agrícolas sin tierra, que incluye el cultivo de plantas sobre un sustrato o en un medio acuoso con raíces desnudas. Los métodos hidropónicos no circulantes, sobre todo, no requieren electricidad ni una bomba. Con el método presentado en este documento, se puede cultivar todo el cultivo con sólo una aplicación inicial de agua y nutrientes. No se necesita agua o fertilizantes adicionales. Normalmente, el cultivo termina cuando la mayor parte de la solución nutritiva esté consumida. Este documento proporciona dos detalladas descripciones paso a paso de kits del cultivo hidropónico simple no circulante para el cultivo de hortalizas a pequeña escala, uno para vegetales de ciclo corto (por ejemplo, lechuga o kai choy) y otro para hortalizas de ciclo largo (por ejemplo, pepino o tomate).

Rainwater harvesting systems for cabbage growing in Uganda

This technology describes utilizing rooftop water harvesting facilities to increase the availability of water for domestic use and irrigation of backyard cabbage gardens. This measure allows small-scale farmers to harvest rainwater from roofs and store it in tanks, ensuring cabbage production also during the dry season, when it would be otherwise impossible.
The combination of rainwater harvesting with other good practices (e.g. mulching, manuring) help increase productivity while reducing soil erosion, eventually strengthening the resilience of farmers to the impact of dry spells.

Indoor oyster mushroom cultivation for livelihood diversification and increased resilience in Uganda

This practice describes indoor mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation as a means to diversify livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of farmers in Uganda. Indoor mushroom cultivation was promoted by the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) project on Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change in the central cattle corridor of Uganda.
Mushrooms can be grown at very low cost and in relatively short time. It is a practice that can be adopted by small-scale farmers to diversify their income during the dry season, when lack of water may challenge the cultivation of other crops, and reduce their vulnerability to adverse weather. Indeed, mushroom production is done indoor and it requires little amount of water compared to other crops.