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Fodder Policy

Nutrition play an important role in Animal Production.In India crop-livestcok system is predominnet.60-70% dairy farmers are small farmers holding 1-2 acres or landless.the calculations tells there is 30-35% fodder shortage for maintanance .so how farmers produce milk at animal genetic potentiality?I  am requesting you all keeping socio-economic ,Agroclimatic conditions and other resources like land and water ,share your Ideas how to over come from shortage of fodder.



Dear Saibutcharao,

The TECA Knowledge Base offers some suggestions on how small farmers could increase fodder production. For example by making silage, by introducing hedgerows or trees that can provide animal fodder, or by integrating fodder legumes with rice-based cropping systems.  

You can search the knowledge base and find more practices, also from other parts of the world, that could be useful or give you ideas on how to address the issue of fodder shortage.

Best wishes.


Message posted on behalf of M. R. Garg, General Manager, National Dairy Development Board, India

1. Many agencies in the country have documented that there is a deficiency of green fodder, dry fodder and concentrates in India. Even the future projections indicate that the gap in requirement and availability would continue to exist. Despite the shortage of feed resources, India’s annual growth in milk production is >4.0%.

2. In view of the above, it becomes essential to know whether entire biomass used for feeding the dairy animals is taken into consideration while assessing the feed and fodder availability in the country.

3. There are large number of unaccounted feed resources that are not taken into consideration while assessing the availability. Some of these include starch industry byproducts, soybean industry byproducts, horticulture and vegetable wastes, grasses, weeds, tree leaves, agro-industrial byproducts, kitchen wastes etc. For assessing the actual feed and fodder availability, estimation of these byproducts needs to be taken into consideration.

4. There are several byproducts that could be potentially used for animal feeding, but are being wasted. All such byproducts need to be enlisted and suitable mechanisms for their collection and use need to be developed.

5. Green fodder is an essential and important source of nutrients for dairy animals. Through proper package of practices, green fodder yield can be increased significantly. Some of these initiatives include use of truthfully labeled/ certified fodder seeds for green fodder production, green fodder conservation in the form of silage, development of high yielding varieties of fodder for various agro-climatic regions, use of unconventional sources as fodder like thornless cactus for arid and semi-arid zones. In addition, plantation of fodder trees needs to be given adequate importance.


M R Garg,

General Manager (AN)

NDDB, Anand-388 001

Dear Sir,

Thank you very much for your info. In India Integrating fodder legumes with rice based cropping system is common .

Silage is one of the option certain extent. In Indian huge gap between requirement and availability.Please advise me how can I improve the nutritive value/Digestability in crop residues at no cost or minimum cost.

Thanks with Regards,


Dear All,

 I am working on Indian cattle breeds. I conducted a trail,Please go through the link below and suggest me protocal to investigate the molecular mechanism involved in antidiabetic property  of Indian zebu cattle milk.


Thanks with Regards,


Dear Sai,

Here are 3 suggestions provided to you by Mr Harinder P.S. Makkar, Animal Production Officer at the FAO's Animal Production and Health Division for addressing food shortage and/or increasing the nutritional value of crop residues for animal feed.

1. Urea treatment of straw.  This technique consist of spraying a solution of urea onto the dry mass of forage and covering it with materials available locally so as to form a hermetic seal.  The technique increases the digestibility of the treated forage (by 8 to 12 points), its nitrogen content (which will be more than doubled), the intake (by 25 to 50 %), and thus to the nutritive value.  The following link provides a description on how to proceed: http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w4988e/w4988e04.htm

2. Crop residue based densified total mixed ration is an approach that utilizes food crop by-products for ruminant production.  This approach is different from the green forage or silage based Total Mixed Ration (TMR), which involves mechanical mixing of forages with concentrate feedings. Densified TMR is a new concept in delivering nutrients as a complete balanced ration to dairy animals and other ruminant stock in the tropics. Each feed block is a total ration for an amimal for 24 hours and supplies all the nutrients, including micronutrients required by the animal. The approach is describe in the publication which can be accessed through this link: http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2728e/i2728e00.pdf

3. During the dry period when greens are not available, following feeding strategy could be used:

- 1.5-2.0 kg urea plus 7.5-10 kg molasses + 60 kg water  (mix well);

- Add it to 100 kg of rice/wheat straw;

 -Can be fed at the rate of 2% of body weight (example: if animal is of 300 kg body weight, then it can be fed up to 6 kg of the treated straw). This could be fed to heifers and calves > 6 months old. Young calves should not be fed with this mixtures.

We hope you find this information useful.

Best wishes,


Juan Mira's picture

Dear Saibutcharao, one amazing alternative could be single cell protein produced by fungi using as a substrate industrial sub-products or household organic garbage. In fact, alcohol distillery remanent is a good source of protein.


In Colombia, South America there are some interesting experiences carried by small farmers groups producing collectively food for their animals.


Warm regards


Juan Mira

Dear Jaun Mira,


Thank you much for your valuable info.Please send deatils of single cell protein production and limitations

Thanks with Regards,


Juan Mira's picture

Dear Sai

Send you some useful information