Technologies by country

This category contains 116 resources

Rainwater harvesting systems for cabbage growing in Uganda

This technology describes utilizing rooftop water harvesting facilities to increase the availability of water for domestic use and irrigation of backyard cabbage gardens. This measure allows small-scale farmers to harvest rainwater from roofs and store it in tanks, ensuring cabbage production also during the dry season, when it would be otherwise impossible.
The combination of rainwater harvesting with other good practices (e.g. mulching, manuring) help increase productivity while reducing soil erosion, eventually strengthening the resilience of farmers to the impact of dry spells.

Indoor oyster mushroom cultivation for livelihood diversification and increased resilience in Uganda

This practice describes indoor mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation as a means to diversify livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of farmers in Uganda. Indoor mushroom cultivation was promoted by the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) project on Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change in the central cattle corridor of Uganda.
Mushrooms can be grown at very low cost and in relatively short time. It is a practice that can be adopted by small-scale farmers to diversify their income during the dry season, when lack of water may challenge the cultivation of other crops, and reduce their vulnerability to adverse weather. Indeed, mushroom production is done indoor and it requires little amount of water compared to other crops.

Agroforestry Coffee cultivation in combination with mulching, trenches and organic composting in Uganda

This technology describes a combination of good practices for soil and water conservation that were introduced to coffee farmers in the central cattle corridor of Uganda, with the aim to enhance their resilience to dry spells, pests and diseases, as part of the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) project on Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change in Uganda.
The combination of good practices include:
(a) mulching, a low cost practice that consists in covering the soil with locally available degradable plant materials to reduce water runoff and evapotranspiration;
(b) digging contour trenches for harvesting water during the rainy season while preserving soil quality;
(c) preparation and application of organic compost to improve soil fertility at low costs; and
(d) planting shade trees within the coffee plantation in order to provide shade and improve soil fertility.

Rainwater harvesting systems for ntula/eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.) growing in Uganda

This technology describes utilizing rooftop water harvesting facilities to increase the availability of water for domestic use and irrigation of backyard ntula/ eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.) gardens.
This measure allows small-scale farmers to harvest rainwater from roofs and store it in tanks, ensuring ntula production also during the dry season, when it would be otherwise impossible.
The combination of rainwater harvesting with other good practices (e.g. staking, mulching, manuring) help increase productivity while reducing soil erosion, eventually strengthening the resilience of farmers to the impact of dry spells.

Improved cattle breeds zero grazing with drought tolerant fodder in Uganda

This technology describes the introduction of improved cattle breeds in Uganda. The improved breeds are more productive and resistant to diseases and are managed applying the zero grazing production system, a type of production system where the animals are kept in an enclosure to control input use and to reduce the incidence of diseases. This breed is fed with drought tolerant fodder to ensure cattle feed availability also in dry seasons.
This mix of good practices were introduced to increase productivity and enhance the resilience of cattle raising to increasing dry spells and diseases in the central cattle corridor of Uganda.

Rainwater harvesting systems for tomato growing in Uganda

This technology describes utilizing rooftop water harvesting facilities to increase the availability of water for domestic use and irrigation of backyard tomato gardens.
This measure allows small-scale farmers to harvest rainwater from roofs and store it in tanks, ensuring tomato production also during the dry season, when it would be otherwise impossible.
The combination of rainwater harvesting with other good practices (e.g. staking, mulching, manuring) help increase productivity while reducing soil erosion, eventually strengthening the resilience of farmers to the impact of dry spells.

Drought-tolerant maize varieties in Uganda

This technology describes the cultivation of drought-tolerant maize varieties in the central cattle corridor of Uganda, a region particularly exposed to dry spells. The benefits and constraints compared to local varieties are shown in a cost-benefit analysis.

Multi-stress tolerant bean varieties in Uganda

This technology describes the testing of multi-stress tolerant bean varieties in the central cattle corridor of Uganda, a region particularly exposed to dry spells. The benefits and constraints compared to local varieties are shown in a cost-benefit analysis.

Making farm-made fish feed for small-scale farms

Fish feed/aquafeed is one of the most expensive inputs for small aquaculture farms. At the same time it is one of the most important components, especially for the whole aquaculture ecosystem. This is also true for aquaponics because the fish feed sustains both the fish and vegetable growth. The technology below provides two simple recipes for a balanced fish feed for use in small-scale fish farms or aquaponic systems. The first formulation is made with proteins of vegetable origin, mainly soybean meal. The second formulation is mainly made with fishmeal. In addition, the technology provides a selection of live fish feed to supplement the pelleted feed. This technology of farm-made aquafeed production is most appropriate for small-scale aquaculture farming, and is best used when commercial feed is difficult or expensive to obtain.

Fish Powder

Fish is a good source of micronutrients, essential omega 3 fatty acids and high quality protein. Apart from processing fish fillets, many fish processing companies dispose of the fish byproducts (fish head, bones, viscera, frames and skin). Development of low cost, nutrient dense and safe fish products from byproducts is gaining in popularity. In Uganda and Ghana, fish byproducts are dried and milled to create a powder. Such powder has high levels of micronutrients, particularly calcium, phosphorous, zinc, iron as well as vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids. Micronutrient deficiencies are a problem in Uganda and Ghana and thus enriching staple foods with nutrient dense fish powder offers an opportunity for combatting malnutrition amongst various populations at a relatively minimal cost. The following practice demonstrates the product of powder fish by-products.

Guía para la construcción y el mantenimiento de un túnel de red para proteger la calidad del material de siembra del camote de los virus transportados por insectos

Esta guía presenta los pasos a seguir para la construcción de un práctico túnel cubierto con red para uso agrícola y las instrucciones sobre como manejar los cultivos de camote dentro del túnel para asegurar la provisión de material base de siembra de alta calidad, con baja o nula infección por virus, como multiplicadores de material de siembra para ser renovados continuamente en campos de camotes. Esto permitirá a los agricultores mantener las productividad de la producción de camotes a través de los años. En Kenia, el beneficio neto promedio fue de $720 por túnel en los 3 años.

A guide to construct and maintain net tunnels to protect quality sweetpotato planting material from viruses carried by insects

This guide provides the steps for constructing a practical net covered tunnel at the farm level and instructions on how to manage the material in the tunnel to ensure a supply of high quality foundation planting material, with little or no virus infection, for farmer planting material multipliers to use to continually renew the planting material in their sweetpotato fields. This will enable farmers to maintain their sweetpotato yields over time. In Kenya, the average net benefit was $720 per tunnel over 3 years.

Manejo e identificación de enfermedades que afectan hojas y vainas en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las enfermedades que afectan hojas y vainas del frijol.

Manejo e identificación de enfermedades que afectan las raíces en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las enfermedades que afectan las raíces en el frijol.

Manejo e identificación de enfermedades que causan crecimientos anormales en hojas y vainas en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las enfermedades que causan crecimientos anormales en hojas y vainas en el frijol.

Manejo e identificación de enfermedades que causan malformaciones y distorsiones de hojas y vainas en el frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las enfermedades que causan malformaciones y distorsiones de hojas y vainas en el frijol.

Manejo e identificación de plagas alimentadoras de vainas y semillas en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las plagas que se alimentan de las vainas y semillas del frijol.

Manejo e identificación de plagas de almacenamiento en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las plagas que afectan en el almacenamiento del cultivo del frijol.

Manejo e identificación de plagas en flores en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las plagas que afectan las flores del frijol.

Manejo e identificación de plagas en plántulas en el cultivo de frijol.

La producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) es influenciada por muchos factores bióticos y abióticos que interaccionan durante su ciclo de crecimiento. Las enfermedades son uno de los mayores factores bióticos que afectan la producción de frijol. Muchos de los organismos que causan estas enfermedades son portados por las semillas derivadas de la contaminación externa o por las propias semillas. La utilización de semillas portadoras de enfermedades resultan en una germinación pobre, poco vigor de las plantas, bajas producciones y baja calidad de las semillas. Algunas plagas de insectos también afectan la calidad de las semillas y la germinación de las plantas debido al daño que causan en la semilla en campo y el almacenamiento. A continuación una breve descripción y estrategias de manejo para algunas de las plagas que afectan las plántulas del frijol.

Elaboración de pesticidas eco-amigables para el control de plagas y enfermedades.

La combinación de estrategias de control conocida como Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Enfermedades (MIPE) ofrece un acercamiento integral a los problemas de un cultivo a diferencia de las estrategias de control individuales. Esta técnica pretende minimizar el uso de pesticidas mientras se obtienen los beneficios complementarios de las prácticas culturales, especialmente. Los pesticidas son conocidos por tener algunos efectos adversos en el medio ambiente y la salud humana, si no son bien utilizados. No obstante, su uso puede ser minimizado y económicamente asequible, integrando su uso con hospederos resistentes y prácticas culturales. Los agricultores que pueden afrontar la compra de pesticidas deberían adherirse a las tasas de aplicación recomendadas como también al monitoreo de las poblaciones de plagas para que los pesticidas solo sean aplicados cuando sean requeridos. Los pesticidas bilógicos a diferencia de los pesticidas químicos, son pesticidas que naturalmente tienen sustancias que controlan plagas por mecanismos no tóxicos. Estos incluyen componentes de origen natural, incluyendo a hongos y extractos de plantas. A continuación una breve descripción de los procedimientos para la elaboración de algunos de estos pesticidas eco-amigables.

Fabrication de cossettes et de farine de patate douce

La patate douce est appréciée dans beaucoup de régions d’Afrique orientale. Elle résiste à la sécheresse, elle est robuste et peut se cultiver dans des zones marginales, contribuant ainsi à l’amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire. Les jeunes feuilles et les cordes peuvent servir de légumes ou de fourrage pour le bétail. La variété à chair orange est riche en bêta-carotène, qui renforce le système immunitaire. Au plus fort de la récolte, les paysans vendent souvent les patates douces à des prix sacrifiés. Les pertes post-récolte dues à leur caractère périssable sont élevées. Chez quelques communautés d’Afrique orientale, la patate douce est conservée pour la saison sèche en la faisant sécher au soleil, ou en la transformant en cossettes sèches – amukeke. Les cossettes sont soit bouillies puis réduites en purée après les avoir mélangées avec des haricots, soit moulues ou pilées pour en faire de la farine qui peut être mélangée aux farines d’éleusine ou de manioc, pour préparer une bouillie concentrée. Ce dépliant sert de guide sur la façon dont vous pouvez gagner de l’argent avec la patate douce en fabriquant et en vendant des cossettes et de la farine de haute qualité.

Fabrication de cossettes et de farine de banane

Les bananes sont l’aliment de base des populations dans de nombreuses régions d’Afrique de l’Est. Elles constituent une bonne source de potassium, lequel intervient dans l’équilibre des fluides
du corps et un aliment idéal pour les enfants en bas âge, les
invalides et les personnes atteintes par le VIH/sida. Actuellement, la transformation commerciale de la banane est très limitée. La plupart des gens consomment les bananes fraîches, cuites à la vapeur ou bouillies. Au pic de la récolte, les paysans vendent souvent leurs bananes à perte. Mais saviez-vous que les
bananes peuvent être transformées en cossettes sèches et en farine ? Les cossettes et la farine peuvent être stockées jusqu’à six mois. Elles peuvent être vendues ou utilisées pour fabriquer des
produits à valeur ajoutée afin d’accroître votre revenu. Ce dépliant vous montre comment vous pouvez fabriquer des cossettes et de la farine à partir de la banane.

Élevage des chèvres laitières

Dans toute l’Afrique orientale, on observe une pression croissante sur les terres. La taille moyenne des exploitations diminue à mesure que les parcelles se morcellent et que les paysans se débattent pour trouver de l’espace tant pour produire des cultures de subsistance et de rente que pour élever du bétail. La plupart des paysans souhaiteraient élever des vaches laitières mais ils ne possèdent pas assez d’argent pour se procurer les animaux, construire des étables pour la stabulation permanente ou assez de terre pour produire le fourrage nécessaire. Mais avez-vous déjà songé à élever des chèvres laitières en considérant qu’il s’agissait là d’une option abordable et avantageuse ?

Lutter contre les parasites du mouton

Les moutons qui broutent dans les pâturages peuvent être infestés par plusieurs types de parasites. Le niveau d’infestation parasitaire doit faire l’objet d’un contrôle. Dans le cas contraire, l’infestation peut entraîner des saignements,
l’amaigrissement et même la mort de l’animal. En cas d’hydatidose (maladie due à l’infestation par un ténia), le cycle biologique devra être surveillé pour éviter que ne surgisse un problème de santé publique entraînant la mort des personnes infectées. Ce dépliant explique comment lutter contre les parasites du mouton.

Using Eucalyptus Leaves to Preserve Maize and Bean Seed

This technique aims at preserving the quality of seeds of maize and beans by using Eucalyptus leaves. It is a simple, cost effective and safe method of keeping away common grain pest, particularly weevils in this case, in order to improve storing activities.

Making Banana Wine at Home

Banana has a long history in Uganda and is a staple food in most communities in which it is grown. It is both a cash and food crop and most of it is consumed by the local market especially by the large populations in Kampala, the capital city. On a daily basis, large trucks of fresh banana are transported from the western region to Kampala due to high demand. Because of the bulky nature and perishability of the fresh banana and the long distance to the market, the margin between farm gate and the Kampala retail price is usually very high, most of the times being beyond 50%. In the western districts, it is common for farmers to discard or feed banana to animals during the pick harvest season due to lack of market. There is urgent need for interventions to add value to banana to overcome these challenges. Value addition can help to reduce bulk, increase shelf life and incomes earned by farmers and other players in the value chain. This document describes a local wine making process used by a farmer group, the Bushenyi Banana Wine Makers Association. The association started with four members in February 2011 and has grown to 12 members in September 2012 all involved in wine making using the procedure described below. The description has been prepared by one member of the farmer group with support of members of the Technologies and Practices for Small Agricultural Producers (TECA) Uganda exchange group.

Using urine and ash to control crop pests and diseases

Pests and diseases cause a substantial economic loss to crop farmers. Other than reducing yield and lowering harvest quality, pest and disease control increases production costs in terms of buying the chemicals to control them. Besides chemicals being expensive and not readily available, they also have adverse effects on the environment, humans and non-target organisms if not used properly, and as such, farmers prefer to use locally available materials (traditional methods) to mitigate pests and diseases which are cheaper, environmentally friendly, easily available and less harmful to humans and non-target organisms. As one of the traditional practice in Uganda, farmers use ash and urine to control a wide range of crop pests and diseases. This document provides a description of how different farmer apply this practice.

Gagner sa vie avec la pisciculture

Le poisson représente une source de protéines ainsi que de revenus pour les populations de nombreuses région d’Afrique orientale. Cependant, on observe un écart croissant entre l’offre et la demande de poisson dans l’ensemble du monde. Presque toutes les réserves naturelles dans la région, mais aussi ailleurs, ont été surexploitées, alors que la population et la demande continuent à augmenter. Ce dépliant explique comment on peut gagner sa vie avec la pisciculture, et plus particulièrement en élevant des tilapias.

Improved trash lines

Trash lines of organic material across the slope constitute a traditional land husbandry practice in south-west Uganda. Improved trash lines are smaller, closer spaced, and of longer duration than the traditional type. They are more effective in controlling runoff and maintaining soil fertility. All trash lines (improved and traditional) are composed of cereal stover (straw) and weeds that are collected during primary cultivation (hand hoeing), and heaped in strips along the approximate contour.
The recommended spacing between the improved trash lines is 5–10 m, depending on the slope: the steeper the closer. Improved trash lines are left in place for four seasons before they are dug into the soil. Much of the material used has, by this time, decomposed or been eaten by termites. Through incorporation into the topsoil, they improve soil fertility acting effectively as ‘mobile compost strips’. Improved trash lines are multipurpose in retarding dispersed runoff while, as
discussed, maintaining soil fertility. They are a low-cost option for soil and water conservation.

Mise en place d'une pépinière d'arbres

En Afrique orientale, beaucoup des gens dépendent des forets et des arbres pour satisfaire divers besoins. Avec des populations croissantes, ces ressources sont en train de s'épuiser. De nombreux paysans souhaiteraient planter des arbres, mais il leur est difficile d’obtenir des plantules de haute qualité. La mise en place d’une pépinière d’arbres peut aider à résoudre le problème lié à cette demande et servir aussi de source de revenus supplémentaires.

Beekeeping: How to Keep Bees and Process Honey

Using the story of a beekeeper in South Western Uganda, who started with three traditional bee hives ten years ago and now has more than 100 hives
of different types, this brochure introduces to the advantages and the basic techniques of beekeeping and honey processing. It gives an overview of the (dis-) advantages of three different beehives (local woven, top-bar and Langstroth). It gives a detailed description of site selection, population of a hive, honey harvesting and processing. It also summarizes common problems in beekeeping and offers solutions.

Make a Living through Fish Farming

Fish are popular sources of protein and white-meat in many parts of Eastern Africa. However, the gap between supply and demand for fish is widening. Almost all natural fish stocks in the region, as elsewhere in the world have been over-exploited yet human populations and hence demand, continue to increase. The best option for producing more fish in Eastern Africa is fish farming. This leaflet explains
how you can make a living from fish farming, focusing on rearing tilapia.

Management of fish in the pond, Uganda

In aquaculture management we talk about managing the pond to be able to hold both the water and the fish in good condition; and managing the fish to be able to survive and grow well to reach harvestable size quickly. Pond management involves maintenance of the pond structures; conditions to hold the fish, to maintain the amount and productive condition of the water. The following technology describes how to better fish in the pond.

Fry/Seed quality and stocking, Uganda

Fry is the young fish that is stocked in ponds to grow; harvested and sold. When the fish is just hatched it is called "fry" when it has grown to a size similar to; human finger, it is called "fingerling".The following technology describes what good quality fry is and what should be done to ensure good quality. Technology provided by the Ugandan Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS-Uganda)

Fish harvesting and post harvest handling, Uganda

Fish is important for good nutrition and fishery activities generate income and employment in Uganda. The Mission of the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS-Uganda) is to increase farmers’ access to information, knowledge and technology for profitable agricultural production. Therefore, the following technology describes the process of the fish harvesting and post harvest handling.

The role of standards in maize, Uganda

The National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) aims to enhance the contribution of agricultural research to sustainable agricultural productivity, economic growth, food security and poverty eradication through generation and dissemination of appropriate technologies, knowledge and information. Maize is one of the main crop in Uganda. Therefore, it is important to have some standards regarding the storage and marketing of maize. The following technology describes the promotion of standardization and grading of maize and the essential composition of quality factors.

Pests and diseases management in maize, Uganda

The following technology describes the common maize insect pests and their characteristics. Technology provided by the Ugandan Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO-Uganda)

Maize production, Uganda

The National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) aims to enhance the contribution of agricultural research to sustainable agricultural productivity, economic growth, food security and poverty eradication through generation and dissemination of appropriate technologies, knowledge and information.The following technology describes the different steps for the management of the maize production and weed control.

Maize harvesting and post-harvesting handling, Uganda

The National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) aims to enhance the contribution of agricultural research to sustainable agricultural productivity, economic growth, food security and poverty eradication through generation and dissemination of appropriate technologies, knowledge and information. The following technology describes the different steps for the management of maize before and after the harvesting process.

Soil nutrient management, Uganda

Soil fertility is defined as the ability of the soil to produce and sustain high yields indefinitely. In farming, soil fertility may be lost through many ways. Some of the ways are as a result of the farmer's activities while others may be out of his control. Therefore, the National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), which aims to enhance the contribution of agricultural research to sustainable agricultural productivity, economic growth, food security and poverty eradication provides the following technology. This technology describes different steps for the management of the soil nutrient to improve its fertility.

Cassava brown streak disease: control measures, Uganda

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is a devastating disease that causes loss of cassava root (tuber) production and quality. This document from the National Crops Resources Research Institute reflects some of the symptoms and management of the Cassava Brown Streak Disease in Uganda. For more information please see file attached.

Vegetable Growing

This is a simple guide on growing vegetables. It is meant to help farmers and it comprises land preparation, fertilizer application methods, weeding and harvesting.

Groundnut agronomic and postharvest practices

Groundnut is widely grown in Uganda as a food and cash crop. It is one of the highest paying crops with fairly stable prices. It is grown in nearly all parts of the country but especially in eastern Uganda and Northern regions. Household consumption is quite high with preferences to the brown/red-kenneled varieties because of their reputed taste. In addition, there is a huge informal trade at the borders. The Kenyan market demands small-white and big-white varieties.

Because of the importance of groundnut, the demand far exceeds output. Thus the need to increase yields and acreages. Well managed plots, and high yielding varieties could go a long way to achieve this.
This manual provides information on good agronomic and post-harvest handling practices of the groundnut. Adopting such practices would help increase groundnut crop production considerably

Growing fodder for livestock: Calliandra and Elephant grass

As improved breeds of livestock become more available, provision of better nutritive management will be more important. Pasture and fodder remain the cheapest form of animal feed available. Good animal production requires pasture and fodder species which give a high yield of palatable and digestive herbage and which contain adequate nutrients. Fodder crops are planted specifically to provide feed for cutting. The following technology explains how to grow and manage calliandra trees and elephant grass and provides information regarding their application as livestock fodder.

Improved feeding of diary cattle for increased milk production and income, Uganda

Having well nourished and healthy livestock represent a challenge for the farmers in Uganda. Diary cattle in Uganda in most cases produce less milk than expected. This is mainly caused by improper feeding which provides feed in inadequate quantities and of low quantity. It is therefore imperative that feed quantity and quality be improved for diary cows in Uganda to increase milk production and subsequently household incomes. There exist technologies to improve the quality of the fodder e.g. introducing legumes in the cropping system. This has a significant impact on the soil and livestock if introduced to the farming and livestock system following certain criteria. This technology gives some examples of legumes which can be inter-cropped with grasses to improve the quality of animal fodder.

Preservation of fish and meat

This Agrodok is intended as a practical manual that reviews the simple
techniques used to preserve fish and meat. The booklet gives guidelines
for several preservation techniques. The methods described and
the results achieved can, of course, differ locally.
The general introduction deals with the principles of preventing spoilage.

Next, the various methods of preserving foods are explained and
the main aspects of spoilage relevant to each method are covered.
Special attention is given to the question of which method to choose
given the local conditions.

The following topics are discussed: salting, drying and smoking of
fish and meat; fermentation of fish; canning of fish and meat; and
cooling and freezing fish and meat.

The authors have endeavoured to describe each method as practically
as possible, including descriptions of the required materials and techniques.

Agrodok 12

Propagating and planting trees

This Agrodok is a companion to Agrodok 16: Agroforestry. Trees and
shrubs play important roles on the farm and in the environment.
Unfortunately too many trees are lost because of overgrazing, excessive
fuelwood collection and deforestation. Agroforestry supports the efforts
of people in rural areas to plant more trees and to use them to
greater advantage, also because of their favourable interaction with
crops and livestock.

It is fairly common for farm households to propagate a few trees and
shrubs in tins, bowls or other containers under a tree or on the veranda.
Where larger numbers of planting material are to be produced,
it would be helpful do have a better understanding of: different propagation techniques, how to run a proper farm nursery, and planting out and aftercare of young trees. That is why this Agrodok was written.
The emphasis is on propagation from seed or cuttings. The more complicated propagation methods used for horticultural crops, such as
budding and grafting, are not dealt with. The Agrodok is written using
simple language so that the information can easily be used for extension
material.

Agrodoc 19

Small-scale freshwater fish farming

Since fish farming practices are so diverse, this manual focuses on
land based freshwater fish farming. In the tropics, pond fish farming is
the most common form of fish farming in the tropics. Therefore, the
information provided in this manual concerns pond construction and
pond management.This Agrodok aims at providing basic information on how to set up a
small-scale fish farm for subsistence purposes with regard to daily
protein needs.

Preparation and use of compost

This booklet has been compiled to give information about how compost
can be applied in the tropics and subtropics. It gives a simple description of the processes taking place in the soil and during composting.

Practical suggestions are given for constructing a compost heap.
A few selected compost methods and applications are given and a
literature list has been added for supplementary information.

Soya and other leguminous crops

Soya is a legume with many good qualities, and it can be used to
improve farming systems. It can also be processed into products which
contribute to the daily diet and to family income. This Agrodok is based on a previous shorter edition, Soya. The text has
been extended to include more practical information on growing and
processing soya and other legumes into nutritious food products. We
have included other legumes so that the information in the book will be
useful in more areas.

This Agrodok is intended to help farmers and extension workers to
make choices that will work well under local conditions.

In this new edition we
devote extra attention to this crop. There are also many areas however
where soya cannot be cultivated, but other legumes do grow well and
have many of the same good qualities.

Duck keeping in the tropics

Ducks are tough animals and good scavengers. They are easier and
cheaper to keep than chickens. This makes duck keeping for the production
of eggs and meat an attractive enterprise.

Agromisa and CTA have produced this Agrodok in order to support
people in improving their daily livelihood. This can be done either
through income generation from a small-scale duck keeping enterprise
or through improving the daily diet with duck eggs and meat.

Small-scale chicken production

This Agrodok provides a wealth of useful information on how to overcome
the main constraints in small-scale poultry production and deal
with threats like predation and infectious diseases. It is a practical
booklet with chapters on hatching, housing, nutrition and health. I sincerely hope and believe that the knowledge, tools and experiences offered here will be a valuable resource for poultry keepers.

Agrodok 4

N. van Eekeren
A. Maas
H.W. Saatkamp
M. Verschuur

The most serious sweet potato diseases in sub-Saharan Africa

This factsheet describes the most common diseases attacking sweetpotato in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, it will help the farmers to identify them and to treat the plants .

Most serious insect pests affecting sweetpotato, Uganda

The following factsheet is very important for farmers and extension workers in understanding the most serious insect pests affecting sweetpotato in sub-saharan Africa, the extent of damage they can cause and their management.

Worm control in sheep

Every sheep grazing on pasture is infested with one type of worm or the other. Failure to control clinical worm infestation in sheep can result in blood loss, thin animals and death. In case of hydatid disease (a disease related to infestation with tapeworm), failure to control the life cycle can result in a public health problem and deaths in infected humans.

Rearing Dairy Goats

Throughout Eastern Africa pressure on land is increasing. Average farm size is decreasing as plots are sub-divided and farmers struggle to find space on their farms to grow subsistence and cash crops as well as keep livestock. Many farmers would like to keep dairy cows but do not have the money to buy animals and build zero-grazing units or sufficient land to grow enough feed. But have you ever considered keeping dairy goats as a more affordable and appropriate option?

Processing Tomatoes

Tomatoes are widely grown and used in Eastern Africa. During the peak season most farmers sell their tomatoes at throw-away prices and substantial quantities go to waste because they are highly perishable.
To avoid this, farmers can process tomatoes into various products for storage and use at home or as value-added products for income generation.
Information from the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation , CTA Practical Guide 12

Making banana chips and flour

Bananas are a staple food in many parts of Eastern Africa. Currently, there is very limited commercial processing of bananas. Most people consume bananas fresh, steamed or boiled. During bumper harvests, farmers sell bananas at give-away prices and many go to waste. A detailed process of making banana chips and flour is explained in the file attached below.

Improved practices in rearing indigenous chickens

Indigenous chickens play an important role in the livelihoods of most rural families in Eastern Africa. Despite increased use of commercial breeds by large-scale producers, around three quarters of chickens in the region are indigenous breeds. This manual gives information on improved management practices of rearing indigenous chickens. The following technology is from the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) in collaboration with several African institutes ( Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya).

Establishing a tree nursery, East Africa

Many people in Eastern Africa depend on forests and trees to meet various needs. With growing populations, these resources are being rapidly depleted. Many farmers want to plant trees but cannot readily obtain high-quality tree seedlings. Establishing a tree nursery can help to meet this demand and provide you with extra income.

Growing soybean and maize in rotation

Soybean brings nitrogen from the air into the soil as a free source of urea. You can obtain a good maize yield after harvesting soybean with less inorganic fertilizer application due to soil improvement. Growing soybean before maize reduces Striga infestation in maize. The manual demonstrates how to plant and manage soybean and maize in rotation.

Choosing high yielding vegetable varieties, Uganda

A smart farmer only sows high yielding varieties with disease resistance to minimize spraying and with tolerance to abiotic stress such as drought. Vegetable remains an important source of income generation and constitutes a key source of micronutrients. The Victoria vegetable hybrids assure farmers of improved nutrition, food and income security because of their high yields and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

Making sweet potato chips and flour

Sweet potato is a popular food in many parts of Eastern Africa. It is drought tolerant, hardy and can grow in marginal areas, thus contributing to improved food security. The young leaves and vines can be consumed as vegetables or fed to livestock.
In some communities in Eastern Africa, sweet potatoes are preserved for the dry season by sun-drying to make amukeke – dried sweet potato chips.

Cotton culture, Uganda

The National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) aims to enhance the contribution of agricultural research to sustainable agricultural productivity, economic growth, food security and poverty eradication through generation and dissemination of appropriate technologies, knowledge and information. The following technology promotes good practices for cotton culture in Uganda.

Groundnuts varieties, management and post harvest, Uganda

The following factsheet of SAARI provides information on different groundnuts varieties, management and post harvest in Uganda.

Egg marketing: A guide for the production and sales of eggs

This guide provides information and advice to those concerned with the production and sale of eggs in developing countries with an emphasis on marketing, i.e. producing in order to meet market demand. Market-led egg production enables long-term business survival, higher profits and a better standard of living for the egg producer. Improvement measures discussed in this publication have been found to be effective in practice. However, as is inevitable with any publication attempting to address such a wide range of conditions, some of the recommendations and observations found herein may be unsuitable to the reader’s particular circumstances. The reader should select what appears advantageous for the solution of his or her own particular problem(s).

Light attraction method to catch Mukene fish on Lake Victoria

Mukene, also called Dagaa or Omena, is found in Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Nabugabo and in the Victoria Nile. It is among the three most important commercial fish species in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga. The Mukene fish is fished by light attraction. Compared to gillnetting, light fishing is relatively new in Uganda. Therefore, the National Fisheries resources research institute (NaFIRRI), as one of the established public agricultural research institutes, provides the following technology for a better understanding of the light attraction method.

Fish pond lay out and construction

Fishponds are not just a hole in the ground containing water. They are unnatural water environments that farmers must manage in order to produce profitable fish harvests. Ponds should provide a good environment for fish to live in, all requirements for fish to live a healthy life, grow well and reproduce well. The pond water must be free from diseases, toxic chemicals and other fish enemies; and ponds fish should get sufficient fresh air and food.
Physical characteristics of fishponds affect water quality and influence their production potential for the farmers. They have to be sited in locations where they can be managed well to achieve the highest production potential. The following technology from the Aquaculture Technical Manual (see attached) describes how to build a good Fish pond.

Selection of site and water quality testing for fishpond, Uganda

The fishponds are not just a hole in the ground containing water. They are unnatural water environments that farmers must manage in order to produce profitable fish harvests. Ponds should provide a good environment for fish to live in, all requirements for fish to live a healthy life, grow well and reproduce well. The following technology give advices on the selection of site and water quality.

Make bitter Cassava safe for consumption, Uganda

Cassava plants contain potentially harmful substances that are dangerous to humans and livestock. Therefore farmers should adopt the processing methods described as a way to manage the bitter Cassava.The National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) has produced 12 improved sweet varieties of Cassava in Uganda. The following technology provides instruction to make bitter cassava safe for consumption.

Improved method of preserving hides and skins

Hides and skins, if not well preserved, are of very little economic and commercial value. Because of this neglect, hides and skins produced in the country, particularly the Lango Farming System, go to waste.

Raising citrus rootstock, Uganda

Improved citrus varieties are not resistant to soil borne pests and diseases. However, they can be successfully grown if grafted on resistant rootstocks like rough lemon. Rough lemon is quick growing, drought resistant, shortens maturity period and is resistant to pests and diseases.

Raising Calliandra tree seedlings, Uganda

The National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NAFORRI)- Uganda generates appropriate technologies for increasing the productivity and supply of forest products on a sustainable basis. The following technology describes how Calliandra tree can increase crop yields and milk yields.

Supplementary feeding for farmed fish

Most fish farmers believe that fish is a wild animal. They think that once put in pond water, it will survive naturally without adding any food supplement. This has resulted in pond fish taking a long period to reach a reasonable size. Most farmers add manure like cow dung and chicken droppings. This technology focused on supplementary feeding and lists some recommended types of fish for farming in Uganda.

Sustainable fishery on Lake Victoria: Exploitation, gears, fishing methods and management

Fish is important for good nutrition and fishery activities generate income and employment. However, industrial and intensive fishing and also wrong fishing methods deplete fish stocks. In Uganda, the major fishing activities are on the Lake Victoria, one of the African great lakes and the second largest in the world, and provide employment, income, and export earnings to the communities leaving around. Lake Victoria fishing is a mainly commercial fishery and need to be well managed in order to make it sustainable and preserve the commercial fish species. The National Fisheries resources research institute (NaFIRRI), as one of the established Public Agricultural Research Institutes, generates knowledge base and develop fisheries technologies for increased but sustainable fish production, conservation of the fisheries genetic resources, water quality and fish habitat, and ensures product dissemination and quality, develop and manage research and required linkages with stakeholders. Below are some advices they give for fisher communities and fishery managers for sustainable commercial fishery management on Lake Victoria.

The control of common predators of pond fish, Uganda

Fish is an important source of food and income for many poor households in Uganda. Fish farming also relieves the fishing pressure on natural water bodies. However, fish in ponds have a lot of enemies called predators which either injure or kill the fish in the pond. This reduces the amount of fish caught at harvest time as well as the quality of the harvested fish as a result of injuries they sustain from these predators. The farmers have complained that predators are mainly responsible for fish losses to their ponds.

Post harvest handling and processing of fish, Uganda

Fish in the cheapest source of animal protein and contributes 50-100% of animal protein in developing countries and 12% worldwide. Fish is the second earner to national economy in Uganda. It is also the best source of income to the fisherfolks. However, it is a perishable commodity, which deteriorates in quality within a short time if not properly handled and processed immediately.

How to produce Mirrow Carp fry (Cyprinus carpio), Uganda

The commonly farmed fish in Uganda, the Nile tilapia, grows very slowly in the cooler regions like Kabale, Kapchorwa and parts of Mbale and Kabarole. In 1957, the Mirror carp (simply called Carp), was introduced into Uganda from Asia. Carp unlike tilapia takes 8 months to attain an average weight of 500g. In similar region, the tilapia reaches an average weight of 100g in a year. Therefore Carp is recommended for these regions. However, Carp does not produce fry easily in ponds. This technology explains the process and steps to be followed to produce Carp fry in ponds.

Management of cotton bollworns using predators ants, Uganda

Insect pest are the most important production constraints in Uganda. American bollworms, Spiny bollworms and Pink bollworms are among the ten insect pest feeding and damaging flower buds, flowers, young and maturating bolls causing abortions amounting to up to 87% resulting to yield reduction and income for the farmer.The following technology from NARO describes using predator ants as a biological mean to suppress bollworms.

Grow Epuripur Sorghum, Uganda

Sorghum is the third most important staple cereal food crop in Uganda after maize and millet occupying 285,000 ha of arable land. It is mainly used for food and brewing. In an attempt to improve food security and incomes among the rural poor house holds, SAARI (Serere Agricultural and Animal Research Institute) has generated a number of technologies among which are Sekedo and Epuripur improved sorghum varieties released in 1995.

Camel milk products: producing butter

Camel milk can certainly play a far more important role in the prevention of malnutrition than it does today. Growing and raising foodstuffs for the rapidly increasing human population is especially precarious in the hot and arid zones of the world - the very areas where the camel is one of the few animals not only to survive, but also to benefit man. Indeed camels can produce an adequate amount of milk in drought areas where other domestic animals have very low production. The following technology is part from FAO's publication camels and camel milk.

Rapid composting methods: Use of cellulolytic cultures

The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health, thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. While traditional composting procedures take as long as 4-8 months to produce finished compost, rapid composting methods offer possibilities for reducing the processing
period up to three weeks.

Rapid composting methods: Use of forced aeration

The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health, thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. While traditional composting procedures take as long as 4-8 months to produce finished compost, rapid composting methods offer possibilities for reducing the processing period up to three weeks.

Producing solar-dried fruit and vegetables for micro- and smallscale rural enterprise development: Business profitability

The preservation of fruit and vegetables by simple sun drying is practised widely throughout arid and semi-arid areas, for example in Uganda. The use of low cost, solar drying technologies, can significantly improve product quality thereby providing practical opportunities for developing small-scale enterprise, particularly in rural areas, and creating employment for women's groups. The document highlights the need to make a rigorous cost accounting.

Producing solar dried fruit and vegetables for micro- and smallscale rural enterprise development: Processing aspects

The preservation of fruit and vegetables by simple sun drying is practised widely throughout arid and semi-arid areas, for example in Uganda. The use of low cost, solar drying technologies, can significantly improve product quality thereby providing practical opportunities for developing smallscale enterprise, particularly in rural areas, and creating employment for women's groups.

Introducing a mechanical press for making Shea butter in northern Ghana

A manually operated press for the extraction of shea butter is successful and popular with rural women in northern Ghana. The production of shea butter is an important income earning activity for women in rural areas and for many their only source of income. Shea butter is used for cooking and for cosmetic purposes, and is increasingly valuable as an export commodity. However, lack of group business and management skills, competition from large-scale enterprises, inflation, and international commodity price fluctuations may hinder successful implementation of the technology.

Assessing post-harvest fish losses: Informal Fish Loss Assessment Method (IFLAM)

Planning and policy-making for the development of the post-harvest fisheries sector has been hampered by the lack of practical tools to understand post-harvest fish losses. The Informal Fish Loss Assessment Method (IFLAM) is a practical, flexible way to quickly generate qualitative and indicative quantitative data on post-harvest fish losses. This method is based on the tools and principles associated with rapid and participatory rural appraisal (RRA and PRA).

Development and promotion of community-based seed production of groundnut Rosette disease-resistant varieties, Uganda

Groundnuts play a key role as a subsistence food source for poor people in the districts in northeastern Uganda where the “Teso” system of agriculture is practised. The crop is a valuable source of protein and oil and thus makes a significant contribution to people’s nutritional requirements. With a decline in the production of traditional cash crops such as cotton, groundnuts are now also gaining increasing importance as a cash crop.
A needs assessment funded by DFID in February 1998 identified rosette disease as the most important general or pest and disease problem on groundnuts both by farmers and Serere Agricultural and Animal production Research Institute (SAARI).
This technology describes ways in which community seed production of groundnut rosette-resistant varieties were promoted and outscaled in Uganda through farmer-led production groups.

LOG-IT: A tool for capturing and organising data on factory production and quality

The ability to capture, log and organise information is essential to the efficient management and control of food production factories. It is of particular importance in demonstrating control of food safety systems. Although initially developed for use in export fish processing factories in Uganda, the technology can be used by anyone with an interest in producing and maintaining daily records of factory production information.

Management guidelines for harvest reserves or sanctuaries for tropical river fisheries

The fish stocks of tropical floodplain river systems support intensive artisanal fisheries. The ability of these stocks to maintain themselves is threatened by increasing exploitation rates, as well as highly variable hydrological regimes and other environmental factors. Closed areas are commonly used in marine and freshwater fisheries, and are particularly attractive for dispersed artisanal fisheries. These guidelines help to identify ecological, social and institutional criteria for the selection and beneficial use of harvest reserves in tropical river fisheries and assist in developing their management.

Predictive yield models for tropical river and lake fisheries

Inland fisheries based on lakes and rivers are difficult to assess and data on catch and effort, often from subsistence fisheries, is lacking. Predictive models based on simple and multiple linear regressions enable estimates of fish yield that can be used in planning for management and development in the absence of catch and effort data. Based originally on physical, edaphic, hydrological and social data for African rivers, predictive relationships were refined and made more widely applicable by incorporating data from South America and Asia. For the lake assessments, additional variables were factored into the models, including climatic conditions (particularly rainfall). Such models provide only first order estimates, but are valuable for planning.

Producing solar dried fruit and vegetables for micro-and smallscale rural enterprise development: Assessing opportunities for a fruit drying business

The preservation of fruit and vegetables by simple sun drying is practised widely throughout arid and semi-arid areas, for example in Uganda. The use of low cost, solar drying technologies, can significantly improve product quality thereby providing practical opportunities for developing small-scale enterprise, particularly in rural areas, and creating employment for women's groups.

Tsetse Muse: Helping planners to design cost-effective tsetse control strategies

Tsetse flies occur in 36 countries and a total area of between 9 and 10 million square kilometres in Africa. Throughout this area the disease transmitted by the tsetse fly, Trypanosomiasis (or Trypanosomosis), has a significant effect on large numbers of livestock. About 50 million cattle and tens of millions of small ruminants are considered to be at risk from Trypanosomiasis, and the disease is considered as an obstacle to poverty reduction and food security in Africa. In addition, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 60 million people, mainly living in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, are at risk of human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. An interactive programme to assess the impact of control operations on tsetse populations in relatively homogenous savanna habitats of Eastern and Southern Africa. Tsetse Muse is designed to help planners choose strategies for controlling tsetse from the range of currently available techniques. The programme allows the user to define the parameters for a tsetse population and then view the impact and cost-effectiveness of different control strategies, including combinations of different techniques.

Dryer construction for solar-dried fruit and vegetables production

The preservation of fruit and vegetables by simple sun drying is practised widely throughout arid and semi-arid areas, for example in Uganda. The use of low cost, solar-drying technologies, can significantly improve product quality thereby providing practical opportunities for developing smallscale enterprise, particularly in rural areas, and creating employment for women's groups. The specifications and prices are for the Ugandan context in 1996. Users need to adapt their designs to local situations.

Draught animal power technologies in East Africa

The technology was developed in collaboration with farmers in the Teso farming system of Uganda. It comprises the development of appropriate animal-drawn implements, primarily for weeding but also for ridging (sweet potatoes), line planting and lifting (groundnuts). These implements are now being manufactured locally. Impact assessments showed that adoption of the technologies and techniques increases gross margins (2005), contributes to increased yields and reduces drudgery, which is of particular importance to women and children who were previously responsible for providing most of the weeding labour.

Working with farmers to control sweet potato virus disease in East Africa

Sweet potato virus diseases (SPVD) are an important biotic constraint to sweet potato production in parts of East Africa. Technologies consisting of participatory selection procedures and an IPM package were developed to improve the performance and farmer-acceptability of locally selected sweet potato clones resistant to SPVD. These have been validated in Uganda and Tanzania. Procedures were established to improve planting materials and to make them more widely available via the CIP network in East Africa.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable whole strawberries of high moisture.

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately. Shelf-stable whole strawberries with high moisture is a technique to preserve strawberries that can be used in confectionery, bakery goods and dairy products.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable pineapple puree

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately.The shelf-stable pinapple puree is a technique permits consumption of the product for up to 8 months after harvesting. It will last longer if the pulp is packaged in glass jars and stored at temperatures equal or lower than 25 ºC. The pineapple puree can be used for preparing jams, jellies and fruit drinks.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable high moisture pineapple - Dry infusion

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately. Shelf-stable high moisture pineapple involves a technique common called "dry infusion", after which the product can be used up to 8 months if it isstored in a cool, place. It is used in confectionery, bakery goods and dairy products.

Preservation of Pineapple

Pineapple fruit is hand harvested. The fruit is firmly attached to the plant and requires considerable physical force to remove it at harvest. Each plant bears a single fruit. Fruit must be harvested ripe, at half-yellow or quarter-yellow shell colour stage. The full ripe fruits are unsuitable for transporting large distances or for processing. However, if the fruits are immature, they may not develop good flavour and colour.

Preservation of fruits: Intermediate moisture whole strawberries

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately.The intermediate moisture whole strawberries is a technique that keeps the strawberries for a year if stored in a cool and dark place.

Simple methods of meat preservation: Meat dryers

The meat dryers are constructions of wood, metal and/or concrete, stationary or mobile, without or with a roof. For strips suspended by hooks or with a loop attached or fixed by clips, removable horizontal bars, either made of wood or metal or horizontal wire strings are needed. The following description is part from FAO´s publication Manual on simple methods of meat preservation.

Preservation of strawberries

Strawberries have to be harvested when 75% of the fruit surface turns red and the berry is still firm. The strawberry fruit perishes easily and deteriorates within 2 to 3 days of harvesting at natural environmental conditions. The temperature is very important for the duration of berry life. Strawberries soften very quickly and become moldy as temperatures rise. So, to keep them longer, fruits must be picked at sunrise, transported to the processing place as soon as possible, and maintained in the shade in a cool place until processing.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable strawberry puree.

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately. The shelf-stable strawberry puree is a preservation technique. The strawberries can be consumed as is, or used to prepare jams, jellies, fruit drinks and dairy products.

Preservation of fruits: Intermediate moisture pineapples

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately. The technique for preparation of intermediate moisture pineapples permits consumption of the product for up to a year. The product can be eaten as such or used as an ingredient for drinks.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable high moisture peach halves

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour.Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediatelThe technique for shelf-stable high moisture content peach halves permits use of the product for up to 4 months after harvesting. It can be used as is, or as bulk for off-season processing, in bakery goods, confectionery and dairy products.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable peach puree

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately.The shelf-stable peach puree is a simple preservation technique that permits consumption of the product for 3 or 4 months, depending on the storage temperature.The peach puree can be used as is, or for preparing jams, jellies or fruit drinks.

Simple techniques for dried meat production: Methods of suspending meat

The traditional way of suspending meat for drying by hanging strips over tree branches, wire or rope is not recommended because meat pieces remain in contact with these supporting devices or may touch each other and thus not dry properly in these contact areas. The following description is part from FAO's publication Manual on simple methods of meat preservation.

Technique of cutting meat pieces for drying

Meat drying is a complex process with many important steps, starting from the slaughtering of the animal, carcass trimming, selection of the raw material, proper cutting and pre-treatment of the pieces to be dried and proper arrangement of drying facilities. In addition, the influence of unfavourable weather conditions must also be considered to avoid quality problems or production losses. The following technology describes proper meat cutting techniques for drying. This technology is part of FAO's publication: Manual on simple methods of meat preservation, which is mainly intended to disseminate information on traditional methods of meat preservation and addresses aspects of hygienic slaughtering under rural conditions in Africa.

Simple techniques for production of dried meat

Drying meat under natural temperatures, humidity and circulation of the air, including direct influence of sun rays, is the oldest method of meat preservation. It consists of a gradual dehydration of pieces of meat cut to a specific uniform shape that permits the equal and simultaneous drying of whole batches of meat. Warm, dry air of low humidity of about 30 percent and relatively small temperature differences between day and night are optimal conditions for meat drying. This technology is part of FAO's publication: Manual on simple methods of meat preservation, which is mainly intended to disseminate information on traditional methods of meat preservation and addresses aspects of hygienic slaughtering under rural conditions in Africa.

Duckweed production

Duckweed is the common name given to the simplest and smallest flowering plant that grows ubiquitously on fresh or polluted water throughout the world. If water is not a limiting resource the most appropriate way of using the effluent from the biodigester is for the construction of duckweed ponds. FAO's publication Productive use of livestock wastes; a manual for the use of biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production describes how to produce duckweed in order to produce biodigester from livestock waste.

Preservation of fruits: Intermediate moisture peaches

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately. This preservation technique to produce intermediate moisture peaches permits the product to be consumed for more than a year. The intermediate moisture peaches slices must be stored in a cool and dark place.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf-stable peach halves (dry infusion)

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately.The preservation method used for shelf-stable peach halves dry infusion is simple and permits consumption of the product for 3 or 4 months depending on the storage temperature. These peaches can be consumed as is, or used for preparing jams and jellies.

Preservation of fruits: Shelf- stable pineapple of highmoisture.

Fruits and vegetables are nutritious, valuable foods full of flavour. Therefore, fruits and vegetables represent an important and in many case an under-appreciated resource which could benefit from better utilisation and exploitation in the rural communities. However, in the low-income countries, poor care and handling of these crops frequently results in loss of quality, especially when not consumed immediately. The production of shelf-stable high moisture pineapple involves a technique called moisture infusion and the product can be consumed for up to 8 months. It is usually used for preparing jams, jellies, fruit drinks and dairy products.

Production of orange-fleshed sweet potato in Uganda

According to the joint evaluation by farmers and researchers in Uganda, the orange-fleshed varieties yield up to 20 tonnes per hectare (80 bags per acre). They are resistant to major pests and diseases, and storage roots are starchy, sweet and easy to cook. They take 4 months (120 days) to grow from planting to harvesting in warm areas of the country. Sweet potatoes are relatively easy to grow and yield better than most crops on soils that are less fertile.The National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) has identified promising improved sweet potato varieties that are rich in Vitamin A, for the people of Uganda.