Technologies by country

This category contains 36 resources

Multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice in the Philippines. Cost benefit analysis based on field testing of some lines of Green Super Rice

This technology describes the testing of multi-stress tolerant Green Super Rice (GSR) varieties in the Philippines. The benefits and constraints compared to local varieties are shown in a cost-benefit analysis.

Making farm-made fish feed for small-scale farms

Fish feed/aquafeed is one of the most expensive inputs for small aquaculture farms. At the same time it is one of the most important components, especially for the whole aquaculture ecosystem. This is also true for aquaponics because the fish feed sustains both the fish and vegetable growth. The technology below provides two simple recipes for a balanced fish feed for use in small-scale fish farms or aquaponic systems. The first formulation is made with proteins of vegetable origin, mainly soybean meal. The second formulation is mainly made with fishmeal. In addition, the technology provides a selection of live fish feed to supplement the pelleted feed. This technology of farm-made aquafeed production is most appropriate for small-scale aquaculture farming, and is best used when commercial feed is difficult or expensive to obtain.

Rice-Fish Culture System (RFC)

Rice-Fish Culture System is an aquaculture system that integrates growing fish in flooded paddy fields. In general, RFC systems could include not only fin-fish but also other aquatic animals. Rice-fish farming is practiced in many countries around the world, particularly in Asia and has great potential in countries with vast areas of irrigated rice fields. This practice shows the main topics to keep in mind for developing a good Rice-fish system and the application of low cost technology for the production of fish in irrigated rice fields.

Propagación de las abejas sin aguijón usando cáscaras de coco

Las cáscaras de coco se utilizan para hacer la cosecha de miel más fácil y disminuir la mortalidad de las abejas jóvenes o cría. La forma más habitual de recolección de miel de las colonias salvajes destruye una gran parte de la colmena. Las abejas necesitan mucho tiempo para reparar el nido dañado. Este problema se minimiza mediante el método descrito aquí, donde la cáscara de coco sirve como “cámara de miel” equivalente a las alzas que actúan como mielarios en las colmenas modernas. Una ventaja importante de este método es que no hay necesidad de reubicar los nidos, y por lo tanto se conservan las poblaciones silvestres de abejas. Simplemente se añade una cáscara de coco a una colonia ya establecida.
Esta tecnología es una adaptación de Abejas para el Desarrollo de 2003 (Bees for Development), volumen 67.

Cómo Cosechar Miel, Polen y Propóleos de las Abejas sin Aguijón

A parte del papel de las abejas sin aguijón en la polinización de los cultivos, podría haber un beneficio adicional a partir de los valiosos productos producidos por la colmena: miel, polen y propóleos. Esta tecnología estudia el procedimiento para la recolección de miel, polen y propóleos de abejas sin aguijón en colmenas de cáscara de coco y cajas de madera.

Uso de Abejas sin Aguijón para la Polinización

Si bien la tecnología de cáscara de coco es la forma más fácil y más barata para propagar las abejas sin aguijón, puede que no sea práctica para el transporte entre las islas para la polinización de los grandes cultivos de plantación como el mango. Por lo tanto, se diseñó una colmena de madera adecuada para este propósito. Esta tecnología explica cómo construir la colmena de madera, así como los requisitos para la utilización de las abejas sin aguijón para la polinización.

Propagation of Stingless Bees Using Coconut Shells

Coconut shells are used to make honey harvesting easy and to decrease mortality of young bees or brood. The usual way of harvesting honey from wild colonies destroys a large portion of the nest. The bees spend long time to mend the damaged nest. This problem is minimized by the method described here, where the coconut shell serves as the “honey chamber” equivalent to the honey super in modern bee hives. A major advantage of this method is that there is no need to relocate the nests, thus wild populations of bees are conserved. A coconut shell is simply added to an already established colony.

This technology is adapted from Bees for Development 2003, volume 67.

Harvesting honey from giant honey bees in the Philippines

Harvesting honey from colonies of giant honey bees, Apis breviligula and Apis dorsata can be a profitable village enterprise. Smoke is used to drive away the bees from their nest. The honey comb is cut and separated from the pollen and brood. The comb is processed in a honey house to limit contamination. Dehumidification is done when necessary to lower the moisture content to at least 23%. Extracted and dehumidified honey is bottled in glass jars.

How to Harvest Honey, Pollen and Propolis from Stingless Bees

On top of the role of stingless bees in crop pollination, additional income could be derived from the valuable hive products they produce: honey, pollen and propolis. This technology discusses the simple procedure for gathering honey, pollen and propolis from stingless bees in coconut shells hives and wooden boxes.

Use of Stingless Bees for Pollination

While the coconut shell technology is the easiest and cheapest way to propagate stingless bees, it may not be practical for inter-island transport for pollination of large plantation crops like mango. Thus, a suitable wooden hive was designed for this purpose. This technology explains how to build the wooden hive as well as the requirements for utilizing stingless bees for pollination.

Aerobic Rice

This practice explains where and how to manage ”aerobic rice”. Aerobic rice is a production system in which rice is grown under nonflooded, nonpuddled, and nonsaturated soil
conditions. Because aerobic rice needs less water at the field level than conventional lowland rice, the system is targeted at relatively water-short irrigated or rainfed lowland environments. Irrigation can be applied through flash-flooding, furrow irrigation (or raised beds), or sprinklers.
Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM; www.irri.org/irrc/ssnm) can be used to determine the optimal management of fertilizers.
This growing system experiences more weed growth and more species of weeds, therefore there is a need to control weeds. Soil-borne pests and diseases such as nematodes, root aphids, and fungi are known to occur more in aerobic rice than in flooded rice, especially in the tropics. It is recommended to grow aerobic rice in rotation with upland crops suitable in the area.

Rice farming: Saving water through Alternate Wetting Drying (AWD) method

Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) is a water-saving technology that lowland (paddy) rice farmers can apply to reduce their water use in irrigated fields. In AWD, irrigation water is applied to flood the field a certain number of days after the disappearance of ponded water.

Hence, the field is alternately flooded and non-flooded. The number of days of non-flooded soil in AWD between irrigations can vary from 1 day to more than 10 days.

Planting of KS Kuroda variety Carrots to withstand heavy and prolonged rainfall, Philippines

Climate change increases uncertainties in the agriculture sector and directly impacts agricultural production. In the Cordillera region of northern Philippines, erratic precipitation patterns affect water availability during important crop growth stages while drought in some areas make it extremely difficult for farmers to grow crops. Local agriculture workers and farmers in this region have also reported increased occurrence, intensity and length of rainfall events, which increase erosion rates, trigger landslides and make certain crops more susceptible to diseases.
The planting of KS Kuroda variety carrot is a good practice option that can prevent production loss due to heavy and prolonged rainfall. An important characteristic of KS Kuroda identified by the project stakeholders in the Cordillera region is the ability of the roots to withstand rotting (as compared to other less tolerant varieties) during heavy and prolonged precipitation. Rotting of the roots can make the carrots more susceptible to microbial and fungal infections. Planting KS Kuroda carrots can enhance overall resilience in terms of: a) addressing slow onset climate change impacts such as shifting precipitation patterns; and b) reducing risk and impact of current climate variability and extreme weather events such as heavy and erratic rainfall.

Enhancing climate resilience through cultivation of Rambutan for Forest Enrichment, Philippines

For disaster prone countries like the Philippines affected by landslides, mudslides, widespread flooding, forest enrichment is a good practice option, especially for mountainous regions, to enhance resilience to climate change and livelihood security. Cultivation of Rambutan for forest enrichment addresses slow on setting climate change impacts. The practice has co-benefits to reduce risk and impact of climate variability and extreme weather events with additional potential to contribute to mitigation by reducing emissions and enhancing carbon sinks. Rambutan is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago and has been widely cultivated throughout the region in Thailand, South Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, India and Sri Lanka.

Planting Rambutan is a forest management strategy to improve the present stock of a logged-over forest to improve the density, volume, and species composition using high value producing fruit trees species. Enrichment planting can be successfully used to increase the value of secondary forests and prevent their conversion to other land uses, thus reducing deforestation. Additionally it helps to stabilize slopes and therewith reduce damages through erosion after heavy rainfall. While reducing the pressure on the forest ecosystem Rambutan is high value fruit tree with promising economic returns.

Revitalizing rice ratooning to reduce risk and impact during hazard-prone months in the Bicol region, the Philippines

The Philippines, due to its geographical location and physical environment, is among the world’s most disaster-prone countries including floods, typhoons, monsoon storms and drought. The country experiences an average of 20 typhoons yearly. Natural hazards severely affect people’s livelihoods as they trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides, widespread flooding and cause damage to homes, community buildings, communications, infrastructure, and agriculture. Within the Philippines, Bicol is one of the most hazard prone regions and agriculture is regularly among the most effected sectors. Weather impacts cause variations in production and seasonal price fluctuations significantly affect the income of farmers.

Climate change will further exacerbate the regions’ exposure to climate–induced risks, which challenges farmers to adapt their farming systems to the different conditions. Timing of planting coupled with complementary practices, like rice ratooning and the use of suitable rice varieties, can enhance resilience of farmers to climate change and extreme weather events in particular in typhoon prone areas. This good practice option can reduce crop production losses during typhoon months and difficulties of seedbed preparation and transplanting during turn-around period.

Rice and Duck farming as means for contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation, in the Bicol region, Philippines

Integrating ducks in rice farming have been proven to increase 20% higher yield with about 50% higher net return. The same cultivation area can be used for not only rice production but also subsidiary products like meat and eggs. At the same time it reduces labour inputs through control of weeds and insects by ducks. Beside its economic benefits this technology is especially environmental friendly. The application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides can be reduced thereby improving soil quality and pest control. The additional benefits of this Good Practice Option are a higher food security to small farming households in times of calamities and on long-term basis the contribution to reduce methane emission. Hence, integration of duck in lowland rice production is recommended as climate adaptation and mitigation option. This technology describes how to implement the rice and duck farming system.

Use of submergence rice variety NSIC Rc-194 to counteract impacts of flooding in the Bicol region, Philippines

The Philippines are particularly prone to natural disasters due to its geographical location and physical environment. The country experiences an average of 20 typhoons yearly, which trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides, widespread flooding, and cause destruction and damages to homes, community buildings, communications, infrastructure, and agriculture. Within the Philippines, Bicol is one of the most hazard prone regions and agriculture is regularly among the most effected sectors. About 42% of the region’s workforce depends on agriculture production. Because it is expected that the impacts of climate change will further exacerbate the regions’ exposure to climate–induced risks, farmers need to adapt their farming systems to the new conditions. Cultivation of flood-tolerant varieties is a potential adaptation option in flood affected rice areas. For flood-prone areas, the cultivation of NSIC Rc194, can be an appropriate submergence rice variety and a cost-effective coping mechanism. The practice has been recommended by the farmers and local experts and approved by the scientists as a suitable technology to be tested.

Use of Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties (e.g., NSIC Rc-108 and NSIC Rc-188) to counteract impacts of sea surges and saltwater intrusion, Philippines

The Philippines are among the most disaster prone countries in the world. More than 200 climate-related natural disasters were recorded in the last two decades. Alone in 2011, the country was hit by 33 disasters, claiming 1,430 lives. Agriculture is the sector most affected by tropical cyclones causing a decline in production and productivity which will possibly threaten the country's food security. Due to the climate variability and other environmental changes, rice cultivation especially in the typhoon prone areas are facing some challenges for farmers to adapt to saltwater intrusion in coastal areas.
Salinity became one of the major soil problems in many rice-growing areas in the world. About 48 million hectares of land in the humid regions of South and Southeast Asia are technically suited to rice production but remain idle or are grown with poor results due to salinity. Studies show, however, that sustained and profitable production of crops specifically rice on salt-affected soils is possible, if appropriate farm management practices are implemented.

Use of Early-Maturing Rice Variety (EMRV) to reduce typhoon impacts in Bicol Region, Philippines

The Philippines are among the most disaster prone countries in the world. More than 200 climate-related natural disasters were recorded in the last two decades. Alone in 2011 the country was hit by 33 disasters, claiming 1,430 lives. Typhoons trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides, widespread flooding and cause significant destruction and damages. Agriculture is the sector most affected by tropical cyclones causing a decline in production and productivity which will possibly threaten the country's food security.
The use of early-maturing rice varieties (EMRV) was tested to improve the production of transplanted rice in typhoon-prone Bicol Region. EMRVs can improve food security, reduce farmers’ vulnerability from adverse climatic events during the months of June to December (wet season cropping), and prevent high production loss due to damages to standing rice crops brought by typhoons.

Risk diversification and climate hazard resilience building through homestead gardening, Philippines

Increased climate variability affects farm activities and traditional planting schedules have to be adjusted to changing conditions. Many small-scale farmers nowadays cannot rely on their main crop alone, since the income would hardly compensate the farm inputs. Homestead Gardening is the usual farmer’s practice to grow vegetables for daily home consumption. The cultivation of vegetables, especially those that can be grown off season or require less water, is a good practice option which can address both quick and slow onset climate change impacts. Additionally, it reduces the risk and impact of climate variability and extreme weather events.
This practice recognizes the key role of women (who usually stay at home) in farm activities and provides them with an opportunity to generate additional income and better nutrition for the family. Growing vegetables in backyards also allow close and proactive production management and enables farmers to respond to impending hazards that could cause crop damages. For instance, farmers can quickly decide to harvest if rainfall levels are nearing a threshold or a typhoon changes its course and may pass over their area. By encouraging women involvement and augmenting household nutrition, this practice contributes to enhancing livelihood security.

Coconut leaf pruning in Bicol region, Philippines

The Philippines are regularly exposed to extreme weather events. Due to its geographical location and physical environment Bicol Region is particularly prone to meteorological hazards such as typhoons, floods, drought, and high magnitude rainfall and related hazards such landslides. Agriculture is one of the most affected sectors especially in the rain fed and upland agro-ecological zones, which largely dependent on climatic conditions. The many resource-poor farmers in the Bicol Region are made even more vulnerable to the dangerous impacts of climate change to their livelihood. This necessitates putting in place adaptation strategies to reduce their vulnerability and enhance their adaptive capacities. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a traditional plantation crop grown in the Bicol Region. A large portion of area under coconut, representing over 20% of the available arable land in most producing countries, can be use more productively with either a single intercrop or a multi-storey cropping system. Coconut leaf pruning (CLP) is a simple, practical and environment-friendly practice that allows the planting of intercrops with high sunlight requirement such as vegetables. This intercropping practice requires short period of planting time, smaller area (using vacant spaces between coconut trees), and less capital requirement while at the same time it provides additional income and improved food security to the farming households.

Fallow Cropping: Garlic after Rice, Philippines

The Philippines, due to its geographical location and physical environment, is among the world’s most disaster prone countries. The country regularly experiences floods, typhoons, monsoon storms and rains, and drought. The country is visited by an average of 20 typhoons yearly. These weather events have serve impacts on the agriculture sector, increasing the need for more resistant, sustainable and efficient production systems.

Garlic cropping in the fallow period after rice was identified as a good practice option (GPO) as it can reduce the impacts of climate variability and risks associated with extreme weather events such as droughts, enhance livelihood security by augmenting household incomes, and promote crop diversification. Garlic is a cash crop with a quick return on investment. It requires minimal labor input so that on a small plot, a family household member can provide the labor. Fallow cropping of garlic after rice is thus considered as a GPO that can both increase the ecological (e.g. improved soil quality) and socio-economic (e.g. source of additional income) resilience of farming households, especially in disaster-prone countries like the Philippines.

Improving farmers’ resilience and income diversification in flood and typhoon prone areas through backyard Tilapia farming, Philippines

Fisheries is of paramount importance in the Bicol region in the Philippines, with its 3,100 km of coast line of various fishing grounds. The region is, however, flood and typhoon-prone and as in most areas in the Philippines, fishing in Bicol region is characterized by declining fish catch. Backyard tilapia farming provides an option to improve farmers resilience and income, because Tilapia is a fast growing and disease resistant species; prolific, able to breed in captivity. Due to these characteristics and by stocking bigger size fingerlings the culture period can be shorted, which will reduce the impact from hazards such as from floods and hurricanes. This farming practice is suitable for lowland and wetland areas that are frequently flooded for several months.

Soil property and fertility improvement through composting using Trichoderma, Philippines

Composting improves the physical soil condition and can thereby reduce the risk and impacts of climate variability and extreme weather events such as droughts, dry spells and heavy rains. Healthy soil systems can better respond to temperature increases, changing rainfall patterns, increase evapotranspiration rates, alter pest and disease cycles, etc. Composting improves soil quality by promoting soil aggregation and preventing surface crusting, which enhances water infiltration, plant root penetration and soil aeration. This also prevents surface run-off and erosion. It also conserves the nutrients contained in animal manure, sewage sludge, and similar materials. Further, it supplies the plant growth hormones not found in inorganic fertilizers. Composting likewise increases the buffering capacity of soils and minimizes the adverse effects of soil acidity and alkalinity. These result in reduced farm input costs because less chemical fertilizer is needed. The application of Trichoderma accelerates composting of organic materials available in vegetable farms. For disaster prone countries like the Philippines, soil property and fertility improvement through rapid composting is therefore seen as a good practice option to enhance overall resilience and prevent high production losses due to degraded or eroded soils.

Enhancing climate resilience in mountainous regions through coffee intercropping for forest enrichment, Philippines

For disaster prone countries like the Philippines affected by landslides, mudslides, and widespread flooding, forest enrichment is a good practice option especially for mountainous regions to enhance resilience to climate change and livelihood security. Cultivation of coffee for forest enrichment addresses slow on setting climate change impacts. Climate control is obtained by moderating the effects of sun, wind, and rain. The practice helps to stabilize slopes and therewith reduce damages from erosion after heavy rainfall. Radiant energy from the sun is absorbed or deflected by leaves on trees in the summer. As a forest management strategy it improves the present stock of a logged-over forest by increasing the density, volume, and species composition. Enrichment planting can be successfully used to increase the value of secondary forests and prevent their conversion to other land uses, thus reducing deforestation. Additionally, coffee is a high value cash crop with promising economic returns.

Enhancing climate resilience through cultivation of pomelo for forest enrichment, Philippines

For disaster prone countries like the Philippines affected by landslides, mudslides, widespread flooding which are causing significant destruction and damages to homes, community buildings, communications, infrastructure, and agriculture, forest enrichment is a good practice option, especially for mountainous regions. Cultivation of pomelo for forest enrichment addresses slow on setting climate change impacts. The practice has co-benefits to reduce risk and impact of climate variability and extreme weather events with additional potential to contribute to mitigation by reducing emissions and enhancing carbon sinks. Trees, such as pomelo, intercept water, store some of it, and reduce storm runoff and the possibility of soil erosion. Radiant energy from the sun is absorbed or deflected by leaves on deciduous trees in the summer. It is also a strategy of improving the present stock of a logged-over forest to improve the density, volume, and species composition using high value producing fruit trees species.

Integrating lemon trees in vegetable farms for slope protection, Philippines

The Philippines are particularly prone to natural disasters due to its geographical location and physical environment. The country experiences an average of 20 typhoons yearly, which trigger landslides, flash floods, mudslides, widespread flooding, and cause destruction and damages to homes, community buildings, communications, infrastructure, and agriculture. To address these hazards and slow on setting climate change impacts the integration of lemon trees in vegetable farms can be a suitable option for slope protection. Planting of trees such as Calliandra reduces weed growth, conserves soil moisture, and improves soil structure and fertility. It is planted in contour hedge-rows to decrease erosion on steep slopes, acts as windbreaks and as an understory component. The introduction of a tree crop that helps minimizing erosion and providing additional income is a measure that increases the resilience of the community against the common natural hazards that occur in the location.

Diversifying risk exposure to reduce impacts of typhoons through squid pot fishing, Philippines

Devastating typhoons make frequent landfall in Bicol region in Philippines, damaging crops, livestock and fisheries. The region has four major fishing grounds, which measure a total of over 1,666 square kilometers. Squid pot fishing enables fishermen to diversify their livelihoods, generating income and contributing to food security in the context of reducing the impact of typhoons. The benefits of this technology is that there are low investment costs and that it is relatively cheap to implement, as well as that the return on investment can be realized within a few days and thus provides a stable way for fisher folk and their families to earn additional income during the whole year.

Strip intercropping to reduce climate hazard impacts in Bicol region, Philippines

The Philippines are among the most disaster prone countries in the world. More than 200 climate-related natural disasters were recorded in the last two decades. Alone in 2011, the country got hit by 33 disasters, claiming 1.430 lives. These typhoons trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides, widespread flooding and cause significant destruction and damages. Agriculture is the sector most affected by tropical cyclones causing a decline in production and productivity which will possibly threaten the country's food security.

Strip intercropping is a good practice option to reduce the impacts of climate hazards on the agriculture sector. The practice involves on-farm alteration of crop mixes and/or the introduction, addition or substitution of new crop varieties. A mix of crop types with different climate-related characteristics can have several advantages in comparison to plant a single crop over the same area of land: it is expected to enhance the resilience of the production system, to reduce the risk of income loss during inclement weather (such as long dry spell, heavy rainfall, typhoon, etc.), to increase the biodiversity and to diversify the family’s nutrition and food security.

Natural vegetative strips

Natural vegetative strips (NVS) are narrow live barriers comprising naturally occurring grasses and herbs. Contour lines are laid out with an A-frame or through the ‘cow's back method’ (a cow is used to walk across the slope: it tends to follow the contour and this is confirmed when its back is seen to be level). The contours are then pegged to serve as an initial guide to ploughing. The 0.3–0.5 m wide strips are left unploughed to allow vegetation to establish. Runoff flowing down the slope during intense rain is slowed, and infiltrates when it reaches the vegetative strips. Eroded soil collects on and above the strips and natural terraces form over time.
The vegetation on the established NVS needs to be cut back to a height of 5–10 cm: once before planting a crop, and once or twice during the cropping period. The cut material can be incorporated during land preparation, applied to the cropping area as mulch, or used as fodder. NVS constitutes a low-cost technique because no planting material is required and only minimal labour is necessary for establishment and maintenance.
As an option, some farmers plant fruit and timber trees, bananas or pineapples on or above the NVS. The trees and other cash perennials provide an additional source of income.

Camarones: Metodo de cultivo

La cría de camarones y langostinos en ambientes naturales o seminaturales tiene tres fases principales:
Engorde desde postlarva a tamaño comercial
Desove y cría desde huevo a postlarva, Maduración y reproducción,

Rapid composting methods: Vermicomposting

The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste materials into a farm resource makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhanced soil fertility and soil health, thereby increased agricultural productivity, improved soil biodiversity, reduced ecological risks and a better environment. While traditional composting procedures take as long as 4-8 months to produce finished compost, rapid composting methods offer possibilities for reducing the processing period up to three weeks.

Community bamboo nursery, Philipines

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. Therefore, it is important to develop Bamboo Nurseries. The nursery enhances the livelihoods of poor, rural farmers and does so by drawing upon their own inherent plant cultivation skills. The following technology describes how to establish and to manage a bamboo nursery.

Community rattan nursery, Philipines

Rattan is an ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving rattan. A community rattan nursery is a cooperative venture between community members who all play a part in running it and all benefit from it.Collective facilities can be established for the benefit of all, such as central propagation facilities, advisers and machinery.

Rattan oil curing, bleaching and preservation, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. Rattan is a natural material and degrades over time. Curing, bleaching and preserving the rattan adds value to the raw material, preserves it's unique qualities and improves its durability. This technology describes the methods use in severals Asian countries to preserve rattan.

Rattan pole steam bending, Philipines

Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. The following paragraph technology the advantages of using the steam-bending technique instead of the blowtorch.