Technologies by country

This category contains 23 resources

Slope Agriculture Land Technology (SALT) in the mid-hills of Nepal

The Argha Khanchi District, located in the mid hill region in Nepal is an area characterized by natural slopes and ridges, prone to landslides and slope instability due to intensive cultivation and cropping without any terrace and bunds. This situation adds to increasingly erratic rainfall patterns, causing landslides and severe soil erosion among others.
In this context, there is a need for appropriate agricultural practices, such as the Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) that is cost effective and simple option to increase productivity in the area. SALT is a package of technologies for soil conservation, crop cultivation and sustainable food production that includes hedge row contour planting, allay cropping and terrace improvement through formation of bunds and contour planting among others.

Zero/Minimum tillage in rice-wheat system in Nepal

Growing of rice and wheat in sequence in Nepal is common, it constitutes the major cropping system in the Terai region of Nepal. The average yields of rice rarely exceed 3 t ha-1 and wheat yields invariably remain within 1–2 t ha-1. These yields are low in comparison with other parts of south Asia where the rice-wheat system is practiced.

In general, one of the major difficulties for this system is to plant wheat in marshy or wet lands after rice, as land preparation is very difficult under such conditions. Wet and marshy lands need more time to come to good tilth and thus wheat cannot be planted in time. In this context, zero or minimum tillage practice constitutes a feasible solution with minimum disturbance to the soil by simply placing the seeds in furrows opened or scraped by the tines. Zero-tillage wheat allows for a drastic reduction in tillage intensity, resulting in significant cost savings as well as potential gains in wheat yield through earlier planting of wheat.

Tunnel farming for off-season vegetable cultivation in Nepal

Nepal ranks among the most vulnerable countries to extreme climate events. In general, rural areas where the population heavily depends on agriculture are the most vulnerable. High temperature during summer months and foggy weather combined with prolonged cold temperature spells during winter months often affect vegetable cultivations, such as tomato and onion. The protection of crops against adverse weather conditions becomes a priority to meet the household requirements especially in mid-hills region in Nepal.

In this context, tunnel farming is a simple and low cost practice to control the micro-climate surrounding crops by reducing the impacts of temperature fluctuations. It consists in the building of greenhouses-hut-like structures swathed in plastic that serve as cocoons, making it possible to grow vegetables off-season, securing the provision of food supplies throughout the year.

Potato production from True Potato Seed (TPS) for cold-tolerant and late blight resistant in Nepal

Potato is a major food crop in the mid-hills and mountains in Nepal. Traditionally, most farmers use small tubers as seed, to grow potato with the minimum input. Although seed tubers are easy to plant and plants grow quickly, they are expensive and may account for more than half the total production costs. Also, seed tubers are the main carriers of diseases and pests, they are perishable, bulky and difficult to transport. In addition, seed tubers require costly refrigerated storage facilities to prevent rotting in storage and to keep them in adequate physiological conditions until the next planting season.

Conventional varieties grown by local farmers, such as Kufri, Cardinal, Kufri jyoti, Kufri Sindhuriare susceptible to late blight and vulnerable to low temperatures, leading to poor yields. Potato production from True Potato Seed (TPS) is more advantageous than using “seed potatoes”. By planting true potato seeds, farmers maintain genetic diversity that will protect the production from any new pest or disease, or changes in climate or cultural practices.

Improved Pit Storage Method for ginger rhizomes in Nepal

Farmers in the Mahintada village, in the Surkhet District cultivate ginger as a major income generating cash crop to be used as food or medicine. Ginger rhizomes selected for seed purposes are stored in pits to be used in the next season. It has been observed that around 25-30% rhizomes rot in the pit itself and about 10-15% rhizomes sprout in the pit and are rendered useless for sowing due to a build-up of pathogenic inoculums. Therefore, there is a need to improve storage conditions. The pit storage method, with some improvements, constitutes an eco-friendly and less expensive method in respect of tradition and local knowledge.

Multi-storied Agroforestry cropping systems for micro-climatic modification and erosion control in Nepal

Natural hazards such as floods, landslides and drought occur frequently in different parts of Nepal with varying dimensions and magnitude. These hazards constitute the major causes of land degradation and deterioration of natural ecosystems. The introduction of multi-storied agro-forestry cropping system ensures use of the best combination of crop-tree intercropping to reduce the impacts of floods, landslides and droughts. In addition, multi-storied agro-forestry systems ensure a more evenly distribution of income and employment throughout the year from harvesting different tree crops in different seasons. This variety of agro-forestry is characterized by the micro-climatic conditions created by the taller trees that benefit. crops underneath.

Community based landslide treatment in Nepal

Frequent landslides in mid-hill districts have caused damage to productive land at the lower basin and affected human settlements and agriculture activities both upstream and downstream. Extensive areas of productive land were left fallow because of their vulnerability to landslides, and many settlements were displaced, mostly to the Terai region from the mid-hills. The communities in the mid-hills practice an integrated approach for landslide treatment, which includes a series of conservation practices strategically planned along the river.

Strengthening of Community Seed Production Groups (CSPG) in Nepal

The seed replacement rate in Nepal is very low and this should be increased to at least 25-33% from the current level of 4.7% in the country. Farmers have been growing deteriorated seeds of crop varieties for many years without replacement. Farmers prefer local varieties in rainfed areas due to low input and low management requirements and low risks compared to improved varieties. So, for successful production of quality seeds, farmers need to be organized in community-based seed production groups (CBSPG). The programme also provides production inputs, credit, training and technical know-how on seed production, storage and marketing.

Community Action Planning (CPA) to promote adaptation to Drought and Flood Risks in Nepal

In Nepal, monsoon rains start around July and end between October and November. Livelihoods of rural populations heavily rely on monsoon rains. However, highly variable and erratic rainfall pattern often causes droughts and floods. To manage the risks of these climate extremes community action planning are being developed to promote the development of hazard specific alternative plans for various crops, providing farmers with faster and more efficient tools to adapt to the impacts of adverse climate conditions. The action plan is developed mainly by the community members. It is location specific and considers environmental, climatic, social and economical factors.

Farmer field schools on integrated plant nutrient systems

There are different ways of carrying out agricultural extension. Farmer field schools represent a participatory approach that directly reaches farmers and addresses their day-to-day problems. The concept of farmer field schools builds on the belief that farmers are the main source of knowledge and experience in carrying out farm operations, in contrast to conventional top-down approaches that place most value on scientists’ findings.
It is a group based learning approach, which brings together concepts and method of agro-ecology, experiential education, and community development.
Several consultation meetings and workshops were held at national level to put the integrated nutrient management concept into practice. These meetings led to farmer field schools being recognised as an appropriate approach for putting this concept into practice. The Government of Nepal’s National Fertiliser Policy now recognises integrated plant nutrient systems as a concept to improve the efficient use of different nutrient inputs, and farmer field schools as an appropriate technology and extension approach for soil and plant nutrient management in Nepal.

Better quality farmyard manure through improved decomposition

Farmyard manure – a varying mixture of animal manure, urine, bedding material, fodder residues, and other components – is the most common form of organic manure applied in the midhills of Nepal. Farmyard manure has a high proportion of organic material which nurtures soil organisms and is essential in maintaining an active soil life. The high organic matter content and the active soil life improve or maintain friable soil structures, increase the cation exchange capacity, water holding capacity, and infiltration rate, and reducing the risk of soil pests building up. A prerequisite for the manure having a positive impact on soil fertility is that it is properly decomposed. Decomposition is enhanced and the time it takes to happen is reduced if the manure is kept warm and moist (but not wet) at all times. Heaping the manure up or storing it in a pit helps.

Rooftop rainwater harvesting in Nepal

Water in Nepal is not scarce in absolute terms, and most areas receive about 1500mm of precipitation each year, while certain areas may receive up to 5000 mm. However, many parts still experience water shortages, in particular during the pre-monsoon season (March-May). Sufficient and safe drinking water supply throughout the year is essential to Nepalese rural households. However, communities located higher in the mid hill region do not have access to water either because systems are too expensive or impracticable due to lack of electricity.
In this context, rooftop rainwater harvesting provides a local source of water for drinking or kitchen garden irrigation in many areas where conventional water supply systems cannot be provided, with significant impacts on health and livelihood improvement or rural households.

Storage of seed potatoes with the Diffused Light Storage (DLS) principle in Nepal

Potato is the second most important staple food in Nepal after rice and it is a source for higher income and a better diet for small-scale rural farmers. Increasing consumption of potato demonstrates its importance for food security; however, seed storage is not easy, especially because temperature fluctuations and excessive light exposure cause its deterioration, jeopardizing availability of quality seed materials. It is crucial to guarantee a good seed storage method for communities that heavily depend on potato production. An efficient practice to overcome the storage problems of potato seed material is the Diffused-Light Storage (DLS) principle, which can be adapted to any existing on-farm storage. If a farmer is able to store his own seed potatoes in good conditions, he enhances the probabilities of a good harvest the following season. This method is based on the use of indirect natural light and good ventilation or air flow instead of low temperature to control excessive sprout growth and associated storage loss.

Water conservation ponds in Nepal

During the pre-monsoon season, between March-and May, some areas in Nepal experience water shortage. On the other hand, during the monsoon, water excess causes regular floods and landslides. In this situation, activities such as agriculture or livestock, as well as the availability of drinking water and women’s workload are deeply affected. Guaranteeing water availability throughout the year is therefore essential to reduce the vulnerability of Nepalese farmers. Water conservation ponds prove strategic, storing water and replenishing groundwater reserves for the dry season and protecting hillsides from landslides during the rainy season. Conservation ponds are not a new practice in Nepal, as indigenous populations in the mid-hill region had used them in the past, but were lost due to the introduction of piped water supply. Currently, water conservation ponds are being reintroduced as a local adaptation strategy.

Bio-engineering practices to control erosion of river embankments in Nepal

Heavy rainfall and landslides in the up-streams of the Churia range cause sedimentation of river beds, leading to erosion of river embankments by fast flows of water. This heavily affects the livelihoods of farmers downstream, causing loss of infrastructure, crops and livestock. In addition, the continuous erosion of agricultural lands has led to floods and gradual deposition of sand, silt and boulders in agricultural land. Cultivation of fast-growing live barriers and building of gabion wires are some of the bio-engineering practices promoted in the Terai region of Nepal to control erosion of river embankments by fast flows of water. These activities to control erosion of productive land along the river bank increase agriculture productivity and sustainability, while providing additional income for farmers. These practices are technically sound, as well as economically feasible and socially accepted.

Bagar Farming (Baluwa kheti) in river banks of Nepal

Farmers located along the river banks in the Kapilvastu district in Nepal face frequent floods and subsequent land degradation that deeply affects their livelihoods, as the sand that deposits in this area makes cultivation of crops unfeasible. The introduction of water melon and sweet potato crops along the river banks, also known as bagar farming protects the land from excessive degradation. In addition, this livelihood activity ensures additional income and benefits not only local farmers, but also some local businessmen of Taulihawa, as well as the local haat bazar. Main advantages of these crops include if paddy crop fails due to floods or droughts, these crops can be cultivated as late season crops, and they do not need irrigation facilities during winter or can be cultivated during summer with some irrigation water.

Pineapple as alternate cropping to control soil erosion in Nepal

Farmers in hilly areas of Nepal witness high variability in crop yields due to adverse weather conditions and loss of fertile soil because of erosion. Overall environmental degradation constitutes a further hazard for the growth of maize, which is the main crop in mid-hill districts Of Nepal, such as Udaipur. Furthermore, recent experiences have shown a reduction in the yield due to longer droughts even during the monsoon period (between June and September), not only reducing the yield of maize in the hills, but also the productivity of agricultural land in the valley because of sedimentation. In this context, farmers in the region, as in the case of the Bengri village cultivate pineapple instead of maize, in an effort to reduce the rate of soil erosion and improve the use of degraded land for additional income generation

Decision making tool: checklist for animal nutrition studies

During a series of DFID Livestock Production Programme (LPP) workshops on smallstock it became apparent there was a need to improve the effectiveness of nutritional studies designed to support the contribution of smallstock to the well-being of resource-poor farmers and communities in developing countries. At the 4th LPP workshop on small stock held in Masaka, Uganda the delegates identified the need to produce a precise and easy-to-use aide memoir, or checklist.

This checklist, 'A decision-making checklist for animal nutrition studies in livestock is intended to help researchers at the planning stage of a nutrition experiment or feeding trial with farm livestock, especially ruminants.

Incorporation of local knowledge into management interventions to minimize nutrient losses, Nepal

Between the elevations of 1 000 and 2 000 m in the Mid-Hills of Nepal, over 12 million people subsist on land-holdings of less than 0.5 hectare. Farmers rely on rainfall and organic manures for soil fertility maintenance. A declining soil fertility is of increasing concern in the Bari lands (upper slope rainfed crop terraces). However, nutrient losses due to leaching and erosion can be minimized by economically and culturally viable land, soil and water management techniques, building upon the sophisticated local knowledge of the movement of water across soil combined with existing scientific data, and promoting them through participatory approaches to the design of technologies.

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) in rice, India and Nepal

Drought resistance in rice is physiologically and genetically complex, and there are a number of traits which are thought to contribute to drought resistance mechanisms. Drought-related traits are influenced by several or many genetic loci. Molecular linkage maps allow identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Corresponding molecular markers can be used for selection in breeding to improve varieties for drought resistance. A molecular linkage map of the Bala x Azucena F6 population with 215 loci was produced and QTLs for blast resistance were mapped. Kalinga III was modified for root growth QTLs and aroma. Segregating lines were produced and approximately 100 seed from 59 lines were given to breeders in India and Nepal.

Management guidelines for Asian floodplain river fisheries

These guidelines are based on research on Asian river systems funded by the United Kingdom Government's Department for International Development. They deal with five basic questions with regard to floodplain fishery resources: Why manage? What to manage? Who should manage? How to manage? and Steps to successful management. They also provide checklists of the potential roles of national, catchment-level and local-level stakeholders in the management process.

Participatory approaches: Client-oriented breeding of rice for the Terai and low hills of Nepal

The high potential rice production systems have diverse biophysical and socio-economic environments, but there is a lack of rice varieties matching this diversity. A number of advanced breeding lines have recently been developed to match these production systems. Therefore, suitable varieties for diverse rice-producing environments were developed in high potential production systems through participatory plant breeding. This technology from DFID describes how to implement this method.

Participatory Varietal Selection: Short duration legume crops for rainfed rabi in India and Nepal

Rice fallows offer a significant potential for legume cultivation in South Asia. A pilot study showed how a combination of short-duration crops, early sowing, minimal tillage and seed priming was effective in enabling farmers to grow a rainfed rabi crop of legumes or cereals. Further work addressed the constraints identified in the pilot and scaled up the preliminary research outputs in Orissa, West Bengal, Jharkand, Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh states (India) and Dhanusa, Jhapa, Kapilvastu, Morang, Saptari and Siraha districts (Nepal).