The floating garden practice is a local indigenous production system most successful in the wetland/submerged areas of selected south and south-western districts (Pirojpur, Barisal and Gopalganj) in Bangladesh. Floating garden agricultural practices have been adopted by local farmers for near two centuries. This technology describes how to construct and use floating gardens for seedling production of vegetable and spice crops in Bangladesh.
Floating agriculture (locally name as vasoman/dhap chash) is a local innovative crop production technology for the submerged ecosystem of the southern region of Bangladesh. Traditionally, the farmers of Gopalganj, Pirojpur and Barisal districts have been practicing the farming technology since about two centuries for adaptation with the flooded/submerged condition. To improve the traditional floating garden agriculture practices for growing cucurbits or creeper type of vegetable crops successfully research programmes were undertaken. This technology describes how the improved practice for vegetable production is implemented and managed.
Floating garden practice is a local indigenous production system most successful in the wetland/submerged/flooded areas of selected south and south-western districts (Pirojpur, Barisal and Gopalganj) of Bangladesh. Floating garden agricultural practices have been adopted by the local farmers since about two centuries ago. This technology describes in detail how to construct and manage floating gardens for production of different crops (vegetables and spices).
Fish feed/aquafeed is one of the most expensive inputs for small aquaculture farms. At the same time it is one of the most important components, especially for the whole aquaculture ecosystem. This is also true for aquaponics because the fish feed sustains both the fish and vegetable growth. The technology below provides two simple recipes for a balanced fish feed for use in small-scale fish farms or aquaponic systems. The first formulation is made with proteins of vegetable origin, mainly soybean meal. The second formulation is mainly made with fishmeal. In addition, the technology provides a selection of live fish feed to supplement the pelleted feed. This technology of farm-made aquafeed production is most appropriate for small-scale aquaculture farming, and is best used when commercial feed is difficult or expensive to obtain.
Este documento presenta las 8 reglas de oro para los pequeños productores de lácteos en los trópicos. A través de la aplicación de estas Reglas de Oro los productores serán capaces de mejorar la gestión en salud, crianza y alimentación del ganado vacuno lechero.
This document presents 8 golden rules for smallholders dairy farming in the tropics. Through the application of these Golden Rules, farmers will be able to improve the health, husbandry and feeding management of dairy cattle.
This Good Practice shows: The value of a decentralised service delivery model wherein about 19,900 trained women vaccinators, provide services to all 50 districts
of Bangladesh, reaching out to over 2.47 million women poultry rearers; Marked reduction in poultry mortality from an average of 40% to 15%, resulting in an increase in average annual income from sales from TK 400 to TK 2919 (and an increase in family consumption of eggs from 43 to 186 and meat from 1.6 to 16.7 chickens per year); The cost–benefit analysis of doorstep poultry vaccination; And the sustainability of women poultry vaccinators wherein annual dropout rate is around 2% and attendance in monthly refresher training is more than 90%.
There is growing evidence to demonstrate the role of rural family poultry in enhancing food and nutritional security of the poorest, reducing their livelihood vulnerability and insecurity, and promoting gender equity. This good practice showcases how an innovative private-community partnership transformed the livelihoods of highly vulnerable families in far flung regions of West Bengal. It is based on the success of a rural poultry value chain that delivers 3 week old chicks to the doorstep of women rearers. As a result of this, small poultry assets, which were otherwise deemed as unproductive, have transformed into profits, nutrition, food security and empowerment for ultra poor poultry rearers.
In Bangladesh every year more than 39 million tons of traditional fuel e.g. wood, straw, leaves, dried cow dung etc. are used for cooking and other purposes, and the figures are rising due to population growth. The traditional stoves used in rural Bangladesh however are very inefficient devices. Experiments have shown that these stoves only use 5-15 % of the total heat energy, while the rest goes wasted. Furthermore, they emit poisonous gases, creating health hazards to users, especially children and elders, and polluting the environment. To stop inefficient use of valuable fuels and to create healthy and pollution-free environment, the Institute of Fuel Research and Development (IFRD) of the Bangladesh Council for Science and Industrial Research (BCSIR) has developed improved stoves suitable for household level use. These types of stoves can save 50-70 percent fuels compared to traditional ones, thereby increasing their energy efficiency. The broader use of improved stoves is a critical contribution to also save on wood and organic matter otherwise used for cooking.
The agriculture sector in Bangladesh is highly sensitive to climate variability and climate change. Agriculture-based subsistence economy employs almost two thirds of the population, and adaptation to climate change is vital to maintain sustainable development. In Northwestern Bangladesh adaptation practices need to target transplanted aman rice, the most important crop in the Barind Tract under rain fed situations. In order to improve its resilience to increased drought frequencies and to inadequate availability of water for irrigation at critical cropping stages, alternative seedbed methods have been developed.
The impacts of climate variability and change are critical in Bangladesh. The northwest of Bangladesh is recurrently exposed to high risks of drought and drought spells. The vulnerability of the sector is high, and is further increasing due to constantly increasing water requirements, growing cropping intensity and high population pressure. One strategy to strengthen the resilience of farming systems to drought is to enhance the organic matter levels in soils for better soil moisture retention and water infiltration. The preservation and increased application of farm yard manure, which is organic matter prepared from various kinds of locally available animal excreta mixed with other organic materials is a suitable technology to augment the organic matter content in soils. It also enhances the water holding capacity and fertility of soils whose productivity has been negatively affected by recurrent exposure to droughts.
Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to water related disasters particularly during the monsoon season. Most climate models predict that precipitation levels will increase significantly during summer monsoon. During exceptionally severe seasonal floods water can stay on the ground for more than a month, destroying and damaging tens of thousands of hectares of cultivated land, and ultimately resulting in food shortages that may threaten lives of millions of people. Many of the poor people who live in rural areas and depend on agriculture are highly exposed to severe flooding. Growing crops with high potentials to withstand flood impacts and survive in water logged conditions, such as the aroid Mukhi kachu (taro), is a crucial risk diversification strategy. The Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) has developed three suitable cultivars, namely 'Latiraj' (pani kachu), 'Bilashi' and 'Dowlatpuri', in collaboration with Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI).
In areas of Bangladesh where floods and/or droughts regularly lead to serious crop losses, mini-nurseries can contribute to risk spreading through crop diversification and additional returns obtained from small scale marketing of commercial vegetable seedlings, tree saplings etc. The components of a nursery include, among others, seedbed, production area, shed area for sapling production, and sale centre etc.
Transplanted aman (t. aman) rice is the major crop usually grown throughout Bangladesh during the kharif-II season (July-October), but in some years and in certain parts of the country floods hinder timely transplantation and production of this rice. Early floods delay t. aman transplantation and sometimes late floods inundate fields and cause huge damage to the standing crop. According to the circumstances and the flood forecast in a given area, farmers may decide whether to go for varieties of t. aman suitable for early or late transplantation.
This practice describes how cropping can be adjusted to the flood schedule by using early or late varieties of t. aman in order to avoid loss of crops due to flood, and eventually take advantage of the early production of rice to grow further additional crops.
Disaster Risk reduction and adaptation practices in drought-prone northwestern Bangladesh need to target T.aman (transplanted aman) rice, the most important and predominant crop in the Barind tract under rainfed situations. Adjustment of cropping systems by involving pulses and oilseeds is recommended to exploit residual moisture after the T.aman rice crop. The most suitable crops to grow after T.aman are mustard, chickpea and mung bean, which are already grown in this region, but only to a small extent. Mung bean cultivation may be one of the most important long term adaptation options for drought prone areas in the northern and northwestern parts of Bangladesh, since mung beans require minimum moisture. Nodules in the roots of mung bean plants fix atmospheric nitrogen, so this crop’s fertilizer requirements are very low. The wider dissemination of these crops and the proposed cropping sequence however requires careful analysis of rainfall patterns and soil properties. The wider introduction of these pulses and oil seeds in previously mono-cropped (rice) areas would ultimately increase the nutritional security of local people. This technology describes how to implement the cropping system of T.aman rice with pulses (chickpea, mung bean) and mustard, respectively.
The drought-prone areas of western Bangladesh are characterized by high rainfall variability, with different types of seasonal droughts (initial, mid and terminal) posing regular threats to rice production. During monsoon season in wide areas of NW Bangladesh t. aman rice is cropped on rainfed basis. Risk management options need to include rainwater harvesting, recycling and conservation, essential to counteract seasonal drought spells, which are common also during monsoon season through supplemental irrigation. But huge amounts of the water available during high intensity rainfalls run-off unused, due to non-availability of proper water storage structures. The excavation and/or re-excavation of mini ponds is a simple but most feasible adaptation option, which can be realized with low investment, in particular in clayey soil. Adequate awareness of the utility of these structures must be raised at community level. Obstacles to the practice which is not yet widely spread in northwestern Bangladesh are most commonly the lack of investment capital and of organization among poor farmers.
Fruit trees such as mango and jujube thrive in drought prone environment. The cultivation of these tree species is recommended for the uplands of the Barind tract, recurrently exposed to drought. Mango and jujube trees are suitable to be intercropped with transplanted aman (t. aman) and boro rice as well as with vegetables, allowing for a diversification of the household diet. Fruit trees serve also as cash crops that can generate alternative income sources and may thus help households bridge moments of crisis. In addition they are a source of wood fuel. An extended coverage with trees contributes to decreasing temperatures and may induce increasing rainfall, and helps counterbalancing the negative environmental impact of deforestation.
Homestead gardening is a well known practice in the rural areas of Bangladesh, creating opportunities for year-round income, even when other income sources fail particularly due to water scarcity and drought. Homestead gardens use the small raised areas (chalas) around the homesteads. The management of close by homestead gardens benefits from using homestead wastes, sweepings and debris as organic matter, as well as from roof collection of irrigation water. Selecting vegetables and varieties which require less irrigation water enhances drought resilience. Homesteads gardens are a good practice for women in particular, who can manage activities and earn income with minimum support from their male counterparts.
Farmers in the Barind tract of Bangladesh heavily rely on rice yields for their livelihoods. The rice crop they rank as most affected by climate-related problems is t.aman (transplanted aman), grown during the wet kharif II season on about 70 percent of the rice area in the Barind tract. In dry years t.aman crops suffer from high yield reduction if transplantation is delayed due to drought. Besides, delayed transplantation leaves no time or no land to grow short duration vegetables, oil seeds (mustard) and pulses (chickpea), before the next boro rice cultivation. In the event of heavy rain the main field may be flooded and not ready for the sowing of transplanted seedlings. A solution is to temporarily plant them on high land with drainage facilities before finally transplanting them onto the main field, once it has dried out.
Due to the natural climatic conditions in northwestern Bangladesh small-holder farming systems are always exposed to the risk of recurrent droughts. Critical reductions in crop yields occur regularly due to inadequate rainfall. In recent years, however, increasing climate variability has caused even more serious and frequent drought spells, which influence agricultural systems in all stages of growth and consequently the crop yields. The livelihoods of two thirds of the population depending on agriculture and allied sectors are increasingly endangered. Diversification and adjustment of cropping patterns are a way to reduce losses, thus mitigating the impact of droughts on the lives of the rural poor.
Timely transplantation of rice is essential to ensure optimal growth of plants and to increase the yields, besides getting the land vacant on time for the next crop. In the northwestern regions of Bangladesh, though, land often remains fallow for extended periods due to prolonged drought periods. Once the rice crop has been planted late (particularly in kharif I season - March to June -) it suffers from water stress during the flowering and grain formation stage, resulting in lower yields than if rice had been planted on time. Establishing a community seedbed next to a local water body is a local adaptation strategy that helps farmers to jointly produce seedlings on time to ensure early transplanting, effectively managing scarce water resources and mitigating the impact of drought.
Based on hard real life experience, the women of Maria village have devised some very
effective techniques for seed preservation. The video describes the importance of storing seed in airtight containers, using insecticidal plants and other clever practices that Bangladeshi women apply to preserve rice seeds. This video presents the technique of seed preservation:
Farmers face great difficulties with drying their seeds because seed absorbs moisture from the soil. As a result, seed quality deteriorates, and no-one can expect good yields by using poor quality seed. In this video you can see how farmers of Maria village in Bangladesh solved this problem by themselves. Now they are no longer worried about drying seed, even during the rainy season. This video presents the technique of seed drying:
“When the farmers take out their seed from storage and open the lid of the container, they may find flying insects. To confirm if the seed has been attacked, the farmer takes a sample of seed in his hand and on close observation may find holes in the seed. Insects eat the endosperm -the inside of the seed- so these seeds become light and easily float on the water.” This video presents the technique of seed flotation before sowing seed.
There are many problems with poor quality seed, and spotted and discolored seed are some of the major ones. Spotted seeds cannot be removed by winnowing or seed floatation. They can only be removed by manual sorting. By watching this video you will learn how to clean seed as one of the interventions to produce and use healthy seed. This video shows the importance of sorting seeds and explains the difference between spotted seeds and discolored seeds.
Northwestern Bangladesh is increasingly exposed to drought, climate variability and slowly increasing temperatures. Strategies enhancing the ability to withstand the negative impact of natural trends and hazards on agriculture are a means to strengthen the livelihoods of the two thirds of the population employed in this sector. One such strategy targets drought-affected soil quality, and consists in enhancing organic matter levels in soils for better soil structure, moisture retention, erosion stability and water infiltration by preparing compost through pile or borrow methods. Compost application improves soil quality and facilitates soil moisture retention, and thus the capability of reducing the impact of drought.
Strengthening resilience and preparedness for climate related disasters on crops is a priority in Bangladesh, where the agricultural sector accounts for 35% of the GDP and 63% of the labor force. The country's high exposure to natural hazards such as droughts, floods and tropical storms often leads to devastating impacts on rural livelihoods. A functioning extended climate and weather forecasting system allows farmers to plan the cropping calendar according to the risks and opportunities that early, timely or late seasonal rains entail. Climate forecast applications tested in Bangladesh may also be adopted and used for disaster preparedness in other countries frequently affected by hydro-meteorological disasters.
UMB are a high protein concentrated feed source that supplies Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) to rumen microbes. The blocks also contain important minerals and vitamins. UMB are a good way of providing readily degradable protein and fermentable energy to ruminant animals, and help increase the protein supply to ruminants in situations where this may be limited. Molasses is a source of energy and widely available in concentrated form. Both urea and molasses are industrial or agricultural by-products. This technology describes methods for making UMB that can be carried out on a small scale, either by individual farmers or by smallscale rural industries.
Aquatic animals that can be harvested sustainably from a farmer managed system without regular stocking are referred to as self recruiting species (SRS). A range of indigenous and introduced fish species; as well as molluscs, crustacea and amphibians are inevitably present in many rural aquaculture systems, even where attempts have been made to eradicate them. SRS resource systems operate at the interface of capture fisheries and aquaculture, involving active management and private ownership of animals during all or part of their life cycle, but remaining closely linked to the wider, natural aquatic ecosystem. Active management of wild aquatic animals on farms serves not only to increase their availability for harvest, but to conserve the natural aquatic biodiversity of rice based farming landscapes.The technology characterizes the role of self-recruiting species in different aquaculture systems, and offers management approaches that enhance the production of and access to such resources by the poor.
In farmer-managed aquatic systems, poor people do not always have the resources to stock ponds with different fish species. Furthermore, in the dry season, water bodies dry out and access to food sources becomes limited. Self-recruiting species (SRS) are animals that do not require repeated stocking in farmer-managed systems and include both indigenous and exotic species. Management strategies for the maintenance and enhancement of SRS include: keeping of breeding stock, re-stocking of collected juveniles, and screening of pond entrances. These strategies help increase the yield of SRS, without extra financial inputs. This makes them particularly important for poor communities, especially during the dry season when access to other waterbodies is limited.
During a series of DFID Livestock Production Programme (LPP) workshops on smallstock it became apparent there was a need to improve the effectiveness of nutritional studies designed to support the contribution of smallstock to the well-being of resource-poor farmers and communities in developing countries. At the 4th LPP workshop on small stock held in Masaka, Uganda the delegates identified the need to produce a precise and easy-to-use aide memoir, or checklist.
This checklist, 'A decision-making checklist for animal nutrition studies in livestock is intended to help researchers at the planning stage of a nutrition experiment or feeding trial with farm livestock, especially ruminants.
Rice fallows offer a huge potential niche for legume cultivation in South Asia. For example, chickpea yields in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh normally remain below 1 tonne/ha-1 due mainly to crop establishment problems and terminal drought and heat stress. At this level, the crop remains a marginal proposition for most farmers. Establishment, early vigour, growth and yield of chickpea can be improved by on-farm seed priming. The seed priming process simply involves soaking the seeds overnight (for about 8 hr), surface drying them and then sowing within the following day in rice fallows. Seed priming raised yields by almost 50% and reduced the risk of crop failure by half.
Studies in Bangladesh found that short duration rice varieties bred by client-oriented breeding in Nepal out-performed all other varieties. Participatory research on transplanted main season (T. aman) rice in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh to identify farmer-preferred rice varieties that gave high returns, fitted with local cropping patterns that could enhance productivity and crop diversity. Eleven rice varieties were introduced from Nepal. Participatory varietal selection was used to test the varieties in mother and baby trials, by farmers in their fields using their usual levels of inputs. The rice varieties were evaluated using focus group discussion, preference ranking, household level questionnaires and in depth interviews.
These guidelines are based on research on Asian river systems funded by the United Kingdom Government's Department for International Development. They deal with five basic questions with regard to floodplain fishery resources: Why manage? What to manage? Who should manage? How to manage? and Steps to successful management. They also provide checklists of the potential roles of national, catchment-level and local-level stakeholders in the management process.
Many floodplains have been compartmentalized to give more control over water for rice growing. This in turn has restricted access to fish, which would normally contribute significantly to resources available to poor communities. Sluice gates are used to control water in the compartments. An improved regime for the operation of sluice gates, for the mutual benefits of fish and rice is devised for Bangladesh and described as a guideline. This method can be replicated in other modified floodplains. It is important to involve the farmers in this regime and ensure that decisions are made by common agreement. In some areas this might be more difficult to achieve than in others.
In many developing countries, centralised management of small-scale fisheries has not been able to ensure the sustainable management of fisheries resources on which so many depend. Often this is because information to support management decision-making is either not available or, being provided in a top-down manner that may be detached from resource users and their needs, fails to account for local complexities and the uncertainties they create. Depending on the local conditions of policies devolution and governance structures, co-management has proven to be a successful approach that can lead ultimately to increased benefits for those dependent on fishery. However, it is not possible to identify a "one size fits all" co-management arrangement that will provide successful outcomes in all cases. This report describes how successful co-management arrangements can be created to support the conditions and processes most likely to result in successful local management.
In Bangladesh, major constraints to improving the productivity of livestock include a shortage of fodder. At the same time, intensive cropping has reduced the fertility of the soil. This situation can be improved by on-farm cultivation of green fodder for livestock as an integral component of the cropping system. Cultivation of fodder crops has traditionally not been practiced as farmers can not normally spare the land for fodder production at the cost of reduced rice production. A system to improve fodder production was developed and integrated into the existing crop production pattern, allowing for the supplementation of rice-straw based diets of dairy cattle. Integration of fodder legumes with rice-based cropping systems is an appropriate technology for this situation.
Bamboo and rattan are ideal resources for development that integrates poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, and INBAR’s priority is giving people at all levels the knowledge and skills they need for long-term development involving bamboo and rattan. Therefore, a homestead bamboo plantation can provide income-generating opportunities for family members and can build upon their own inherent plant-cultivation abilities. The bamboo culms produced may be sold for profit, of may be used within the family for value-adding activities, such as mat-weaving, agarbathi stick production, handicrafts or other products.